Portuguese language original tpb Lupeo on-line
Portuguese português, língua portuguesa Pronunciation Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣeʃ], Portuguese pronunciation: [poɾtuˈɡes], [poʁtu′ɡes], Portuguese pronunciation: [poɹtu′ɡes], Portuguese pronunciation: [poɦtu'gejʃ] Ethnicity Lusophones
Native speakers 223 million (2012–2016)  20 million L2 speakers  Language family Indo-European
Italic Romance Western Romance Ibero-Romance West Iberian Galician-Portuguese Portuguese Early forms Old Latin Classical Latin
Old Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese)
Writing system Latin ( Portuguese alphabet) Portuguese Braille Signed forms Manually coded Portuguese Official status Official language in
Equatorial Guinea 
São Tomé and Príncipe
Recognised minority language in
Uruguay   
Numerous international organisations Regulated by Portugal: Lisbon Academy of Sciences ( Lisbon Academy Class of Letters) Brazil: Academia Brasileira de Letras Language codes ISO 639-1 pt ISO 639-2 por ISO 639-3 por Glottolog port1283  Linguasphere 51-AAA-a Native language
Official and administrative language
Cultural or secondary language
Portuguese-based creole languages
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Portuguese ( português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe.  It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Chinese Macau. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India;  in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as " Lusophone " ( Lusófono).
Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, and has kept some Celtic phonology and lexicon.   With approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 250 million total speakers, Portuguese is usually listed as the sixth most natively spoken language in the world, the third-most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers,  and the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere. It is also the second-most spoken language, after Spanish, in South America and all of Latin America, one of the 10 most spoken languages in Africa  and is an official language of the European Union, Mercosur, OAS, ECOWAS and the African Union. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries is an international organization made up of all of the world's officially Lusophone nations.
History [ edit]
When the Romans arrived at the Iberian Peninsula in 216 BC, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend. The language was spread by Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly near the settlements of previous Celtic civilizations established long before the Roman arrivals. For that reason, the language has kept a relevant substratum of much older, Atlantic European Megalithic Culture  and Celtic culture,  part of the Hispano-Celtic group of ancient languages.  
Between AD 409 and AD 711, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples of the Migration Period. The occupiers, mainly Suebi,   Visigoths and Buri  who originally spoke Germanic languages, quickly adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and over the next 300 years totally integrated into the local populations. After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain. Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has adopted a significant number of loanwords from Greek,  mainly in technical and scientific terminology. These borrowings occurred via Latin, and later during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia and County of Portugal. Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until the 12th-century independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León, which had by then assumed reign over Galicia.
In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period (from the 12th to the 14th century), the language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms. For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France. The Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese, presumably by Gerald of Braga,  a monk from Moissac, who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms.  Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1139, under King Afonso I of Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon (the Estudos Gerais, which later moved to Coimbra) and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to many regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. By the mid-16th century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities.
Its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts, which led to the formation of creole languages such as that called Kristang in many parts of Asia (from the word cristão, "Christian"). The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal.
The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in 1516. The early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek because of the Renaissance (learned words borrowed from Latin also came from Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin during that time), which greatly enriched the lexicon. Most literate Portuguese speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing – and eventually speech – in Portuguese. 
Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet and gracious language", while the Brazilian poet Olavo Bilac described it as a última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela ("the last flower of Latium, naive and beautiful. Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões", after Luís Vaz de Camões, one of the greatest literary figures in the Portuguese language and author of the Portuguese epic poem Os Lusíadas.   
In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, an interactive museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil, the city with the greatest number of Portuguese language speakers in the world.  The museum is the first of its kind in the world.  In 2015 the museum was destroyed in a fire, but there are plans to reconstruct it. 
Geographic distribution [ edit]
Multilingual sign in Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan. Return immigration of Japanese Brazilians has led to a large Portuguese-speaking community in the town. 
Portuguese is the native language of the vast majority of the people in Portugal , Brazil  and São Tomé and Príncipe (95%).  Perhaps 75% of the population of urban Angola speaks Portuguese natively,  while approximately 85% fluent; these rates are significantly lower in the countryside.  Just over 40% (and rapidly increasing) of the population of Mozambique are native speakers of Portuguese, and 60% are fluent, according to the 2007 census.  Portuguese is also spoken natively by 30% of the population in Guinea-Bissau, and a Portuguese-based creole is understood by all.  No data is available for Cape Verde, but almost all the population is bilingual, and the monolingual population speaks the Portuguese-based Cape Verdean Creole. Portuguese is mentioned in the Constitution of South Africa as one of the languages spoken by communities within the country for which the Pan South African Language Board was charged with promoting and ensuring respect. 
There are also significant Portuguese-speaking immigrant communities in many countries including Andorra (15. 4%),  Bermuda,  Canada (400, 275 people in the 2006 census),  France (900, 000 people),  Japan (400, 000 people),  Jersey,  Namibia (about 4–5% of the population, mainly refugees from Angola in the north of the country),  Paraguay (10. 7% or 636, 000 people),  Macau (0. 6% or 12, 000 people),  Switzerland (196, 000 nationals in 2008),  Venezuela (554, 000).  and the United States (0. 35% of the population or 1, 228, 126 speakers according to the 2007 American Community Survey). 
In some parts of former Portuguese India, namely Goa  and Daman and Diu,  the language is still spoken by about 10, 000 people. In 2014, an estimated 1, 500 students were learning Portuguese in Goa. 
Official status [ edit]
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries 
(in Portuguese Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, with the Portuguese acronym CPLP) consists of the eight independent countries that have Portuguese as an official language: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and São Tomé and Príncipe. 
Equatorial Guinea made a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June 2010, a status given only to states with Portuguese as an official language.  In 2011, Portuguese became its third official language (besides Spanish and French)  and, in July 2014, the country was accepted as a member of the CPLP. 
Portuguese is also one of the official languages of the Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of Macau (alongside Chinese) and of several international organizations, including Mercosur,  the Organization of Ibero-American States,  the Union of South American Nations,  the Organization of American States,  the African Union,  the Economic Community of West African States,  the Southern African Development Community  and the European Union. 
Lusophone countries [ edit]
According to The World Factbook country population estimates for 2018, the population of each of the ten jurisdictions is as follows (by descending order):
Population (July 2018 est. ) 
Native language of the majority
208, 846, 892
Portuguese in Brazil
Vast majority as a native language
30, 355, 880
Portuguese in Angola
A significant minority as a native language; majority as a second language
27, 233, 789
Portuguese in Mozambique
A significant minority as a native language; spoken by majority as a second language
10, 355, 493
Portuguese in Portugal
1, 833, 247
Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau
A significant minority as a native language
1, 321, 929
Portuguese in East Timor
A small minority as a second language
Equatorial Guinea 2
Portuguese in Equatorial Guinea
A small minority as a native language alongside Annobonese Creole
Portuguese in Macau
A small minority as a native language
Portuguese in Cape Verde
Majority as a second language
São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese in São Tomé and Príncipe
c. 282 million
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Macau is not a sovereign nation. It is one of the two semi-autonomous Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China (the other being Anglophone Hong Kong, a former British colony).
Equatorial Guinea adopted Portuguese as one of its official languages in 2007, being admitted to CPLP in 2014. The use of the Portuguese language in this country is limited. However, a Portuguese-based creole language, Annobonese Creole, is used, mainly on the islands of Annobon and Bioko.
The combined population of the entire Lusophone area was estimated at 279 million in July 2017. This number does not include the Lusophone diaspora, estimated at approximately 10 million people (including 4. 5 million Portuguese, 3 million Brazilians, and half a million Cape Verdeans, among others), although it is hard to obtain official accurate numbers of diasporic Portuguese speakers because a significant portion of these citizens are naturalized citizens born outside of Lusophone territory or are children of immigrants, and may have only a basic command of the language. Additionally, a large part of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number of Brazilian and PALOP emigrant citizens in Portugal or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.
The Portuguese language therefore serves more than 250 million people daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.
Portuguese as a foreign language [ edit]
Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in Uruguay.  Other countries where Portuguese is commonly taught in schools or where it has been introduced as an option include Venezuela,  Zambia,  the Republic of the Congo,  Senegal,  Namibia,  Eswatini (Swaziland),  South Africa,  Ivory Coast,  and Mauritius.  In 2017, a project was launched to introduce Portuguese as a school subject in Zimbabwe too.   Also, according to Portugal's Minister of Foreign Affairs, the language will be part of the school curriculum of a total of 32 countries by 2020.  In the countries listed below Portuguese is spoken either as native language by minorities due to the Portuguese colonial past or as a lingua franca in bordering and multilingual regions, such as on the border between Brazil and Uruguay and Angola and Namibia.
Population  (July 2017 est. )
3, 444, 006
Portuguese in Uruguay
Significant minority as a native language
43, 847, 430
Portuguese in Argentina
Minority as a second language
7, 052, 984
Portuguese in Paraguay
31, 568, 179
Portuguese in Venezuela
57, 725, 600
Portuguese in South Africa
Small minority as a native language
2, 606, 971
Portuguese in Namibia
5, 125, 821
Portuguese in Congo
Small minority as a second language
16, 591, 390
Portuguese in Zambia
15, 411, 614
Portuguese in Senegal
1, 343, 098
Portuguese in Eswatini
Future [ edit]
According to estimates by UNESCO, Portuguese is the fastest-growing European language after English and the language has, according to the newspaper The Portugal News publishing data given from UNESCO, the highest potential for growth as an international language in southern Africa and South America.  Portuguese is a globalized language spoken officially on five continents, and as a second language by millions worldwide.
Since 1991, when Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul with other South American nations, namely Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of those South American countries.
Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries (Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc. ) in the world.  
Dialects [ edit]
Ethnically diverse East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official languages
Você, a pronoun meaning "you", is used for educated, formal, and colloquial respectful speech in most Portuguese-speaking regions. In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, você is virtually absent from the spoken language. Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Informal speech employs tu followed by second person verbs, formal language retains the formal você, followed by the third person conjugation.
Conjugation of verbs in tu has three different forms in Brazil (verb "to see": tu viste?, in the traditional second person, tu viu?, in the third person, and tu visse?, in the innovative second person), the conjugation used in the Brazilian states of Pará, Santa Catarina and Maranhão being generally traditional second person, the kind that is used in other Portuguese-speaking countries and learned in Brazilian schools.
The predominance of Southeastern-based media products has established você as the pronoun of choice for the second person singular in both writing and multimedia communications. However, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the country's main cultural centre, the usage of tu has been expanding ever since the end of the 20th century,  being most frequent among youngsters, and a number of studies have also shown an increase in its use in a number of other Brazilian dialects.  
The status of second person pronouns in Brazil. Near exclusive use of você (greater than 96%) Decidedly predominant use of tu (greater than 80%), but with near exclusive third person ( você -like) verbal conjugation. 50-50 você / tu variation, with tu being nearly always accompanied by third person ( você -like) verbal conjugation. Decidedly predominant to near exclusive use of tu (76% to 95%) with reasonable frequency of second person ( tu -like) verbal conjugation. Balanced você/tu distribution, being tu exclusively accompanied by third person ( você -like) verbal conjugation. Balanced você / tu distribution, tu being predominantly accompanied by third person ( você -like) verbal conjugation. No data
Modern Standard European Portuguese ( português padrão or português continental) is based on the Portuguese spoken in the area including and surrounding the cities of Coimbra and Lisbon, in central Portugal. Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries. As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: the European and the Brazilian. Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and cannot be found in Europe. The same occur with the Santomean, Mozambican, Bissau-Guinean, Angolan and Cape Verdean dialects, being exclusive to Africa. See Portuguese in Africa.
Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below.  There are some differences between the areas but these are the best approximations possible. IPA transcriptions refer to the names in local pronunciation.
Brazil [ edit]
Caipira – Spoken in the states of São Paulo (most markedly on the countryside and rural areas); southern Minas Gerais, northern Paraná and southeastern Mato Grosso do Sul. Depending on the vision of what constitutes caipira, Triângulo Mineiro, border areas of Goiás and the remaining parts of Mato Grosso do Sul are included, and the frontier of caipira in Minas Gerais is expanded further northerly, though not reaching metropolitan Belo Horizonte. It is often said that caipira appeared by decreolization of the língua brasílica and the related língua geral paulista, then spoken in almost all of what is now São Paulo, a former lingua franca in most of the contemporary Centro-Sul of Brazil before the 18th century, brought by the bandeirantes, interior pioneers of Colonial Brazil, closely related to its northern counterpart Nheengatu, and that is why the dialect shows many general differences from other variants of the language.  It has striking remarkable differences in comparison to other Brazilian dialects in phonology, prosody and grammar, often stigmatized as being strongly associated with a substandard variant, now mostly rural.     
Cearense or Costa norte – is a dialect spoken more sharply in the states of Ceará and Piauí. The variant of Ceará includes fairly distinctive traits it shares with the one spoken in Piauí, though, such as distinctive regional phonology and vocabulary (for example, a debuccalization process stronger than that of Portuguese, a different system of the vowel harmony that spans Brazil from fluminense and mineiro to amazofonia but is especially prevalent in nordestino, a very coherent coda sibilant palatalization as those of Portugal and Rio de Janeiro but allowed in fewer environments than in other accents of nordestino, a greater presence of dental stop palatalization to palato-alveolar in comparison to other accents of nordestino, among others, as well as a great number of archaic Portuguese words).      
Baiano – Found in Bahia, Sergipe, northern Minas Gerais and border regions with Goiás and Tocantins. Similar to nordestino, it has a very characteristic syllable-timed rhythm and the greatest tendency to pronounce unstressed vowels as open-mid [ ɛ] and [ ɔ].
Fluminense – A broad dialect with many variants spoken in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and neighbouring eastern regions of Minas Gerais. Fluminense formed in these previously caipira -speaking areas due to the gradual influence of European migrants, causing many people to distance their speech from their original dialect and incorporate new terms.  Fluminense is sometimes referred to as carioca, however carioca is a more specific term referring to the accent of the Greater Rio de Janeiro area by speakers with a fluminense dialect.
Gaúcho – in Rio Grande do Sul, similar to sulista. There are many distinct accents in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to the heavy influx of European immigrants of diverse origins who have settled in colonies throughout the state, and to the proximity to Spanish-speaking nations. The gaúcho word in itself is a Spanish loanword into Portuguese of obscure Indigenous Amerindian origins. Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
Mineiro – Minas Gerais (not prevalent in the Triângulo Mineiro). As the fluminense area, its associated region was formerly a sparsely populated land where caipira was spoken, but the discovery of gold and gems made it the most prosperous Brazilian region, what attracted Portuguese colonists, commoners from other parts of Brazil and their African slaves. South-southwestern, southeastern and northern areas of the state have fairly distinctive speech, actually approximating to caipira, fluminense (popularly called, often pejoratively, carioca do brejo, "marsh carioca") and baiano respectively. Areas including and surrounding Belo Horizonte have a distinctive accent.
Nordestino  – more marked in the Sertão (7), where, in the 19th and 20th centuries and especially in the area including and surrounding the sertão (the dry land after Agreste) of Pernambuco and southern Ceará, it could sound less comprehensible to speakers of other Portuguese dialects than Galician or Rioplatense Spanish, and nowadays less distinctive from other variants in the metropolitan cities along the coasts. It can be divided in two regional variants, one that includes the northern Maranhão and southern of Piauí, and other that goes from Ceará to Alagoas.
Nortista or amazofonia – Most of Amazon Basin states, i. e. Northern Brazil. Before the 20th century, most people from the nordestino area fleeing the droughts and their associated poverty settled here, so it has some similarities with the Portuguese dialect there spoken. The speech in and around the cities of Belém and Manaus has a more European flavor in phonology, prosody and grammar.
Paulistano – Variants spoken around Greater São Paulo in its maximum definition and more easterly areas of São Paulo state, as well perhaps "educated speech" from anywhere in the state of São Paulo (where it coexists with caipira). Caipira is the hinterland sociolect of much of the Central-Southern half of Brazil, nowadays conservative only in the rural areas and associated with them, that has a historically low prestige in cities as Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, and until some years ago, in São Paulo itself. Sociolinguistics, or what by times is described as ' linguistic prejudice ', often correlated with classism,    is a polemic topic in the entirety of the country since the times of Adoniran Barbosa. Also, the "Paulistano" accent was heavily influenced by the presence of immigrants in the city of São Paulo, especially the Italians.
Sertanejo – Center-Western states, and also much of Tocantins and Rondônia. It is closer to mineiro, caipira, nordestino or nortista depending on the location.
Sulista – The variants spoken in the areas between the northern regions of Rio Grande do Sul and southern regions of São Paulo state, encompassing most of southern Brazil. The city of Curitiba does have a fairly distinct accent as well, and a relative majority of speakers around and in Florianópolis also speak this variant (many speak florianopolitano or manezinho da ilha instead, related to the European Portuguese dialects spoken in Azores and Madeira). Speech of northern Paraná is closer to that of inland São Paulo.
Florianopolitano – Variants heavily influenced by European Portuguese spoken in Florianópolis city (due to a heavy immigration movement from Portugal, mainly its insular regions) and much of its metropolitan area, Grande Florianópolis, said to be a continuum between those whose speech most resemble sulista dialects and those whose speech most resemble fluminense and European ones, called, often pejoratively, manezinho da ilha.
Carioca – Not a dialect, but sociolects of the fluminense variant spoken in an area roughly corresponding to Greater Rio de Janeiro. It appeared after locals came in contact with the Portuguese aristocracy amidst the Portuguese royal family fled in the early 19th century. There is actually a continuum between Vernacular countryside accents and the carioca sociolect, and the educated speech (in Portuguese norma culta, which most closely resembles other Brazilian Portuguese standards but with marked recent Portuguese influences, the nearest ones among the country's dialects along florianopolitano), so that not all people native to the state of Rio de Janeiro speak the said sociolect, but most carioca speakers will use the standard variant not influenced by it that is rather uniform around Brazil depending on context (emphasis or formality, for example).
Brasiliense – used in Brasília and its metropolitan area.  It is not considered a dialect, but more of a regional variant – often deemed to be closer to fluminense than the dialect commonly spoken in most of Goiás, sertanejo.
Arco do desflorestamento or serra amazônica – Known in its region as the "accent of the migrants", it has similarities with caipira, sertanejo and often sulista that make it differing from amazofonia (in the opposite group of Brazilian dialects, in which it is placed along nordestino, baiano, mineiro and fluminense). It is the most recent dialect, which appeared by the settlement of families from various other Brazilian regions attracted by the cheap land offer in recently deforested areas.  
Recifense – used in Recife and its metropolitan area.
Portugal [ edit]
Dialects of Portuguese in Portugal
Micaelense (Açores) (São Miguel) – Azores.
Alentejano – Alentejo ( Alentejan Portuguese)
Algarvio – Algarve (there is a particular dialect in a small part of western Algarve).
Minhoto – Districts of Braga and Viana do Castelo (hinterland).
Beirão; Alto-Alentejano – Central Portugal (hinterland).
Beirão – Central Portugal.
Estremenho – Regions of Coimbra, Leiria and Lisbon (this is a disputed denomination, as Coimbra is not part of "Estremadura", and the Lisbon dialect has some peculiar features that are not only not shared with that of Coimbra, but also significantly distinct and recognizable to most native speakers from elsewhere in Portugal).
Madeirense (Madeiran) – Madeira.
Portuense – Regions of the district of Porto and parts of Aveiro.
Transmontano – Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.
Other countries and dependencies [ edit]
Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary, but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences. The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages.
Characterization and peculiarities [ edit]
Portuguese, like Catalan, preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf. Port., Cat., Sard. pedra; Fr. pierre, Sp. piedra, It. pietra, Ro. piatră, from Lat. petra ("stone"); or Port. fogo, Cat. foc, Sard. fogu; Sp. fuego, It. fuoco, Fr. feu, Ro. foc, from Lat. focus ("fire"). Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and n, sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: cf. Lat. salire ("to jump"), tenere ("to hold"), catena ("chain"), Port. sair, ter, cadeia.
When the elided consonant was n, it often nasalized the preceding vowel: cf. manum ("hand"), ranam ("frog"), bonum ("good"), Old Portuguese mão, rãa, bõo (Portuguese: mão, rã, bom). This process was the source of most of the language's distinctive nasal diphthongs. In particular, the Latin endings -anem, -anum and -onem became -ão in most cases, cf. canis ("dog"), germanus ("brother"), ratio ("reason") with Modern Port. cão, irmão, razão, and their plurals -anes, -anos, -ones normally became -ães, -ãos, -ões, cf. cães, irmãos, razões.
The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: cf. dar-te-ei (I'll give thee), amar-te-ei (I'll love you), contactá-los-ei (I'll contact them). Like Galician, it also retains the Latin synthetic pluperfect tense: eu estivera (I had been), eu vivera (I had lived), vós vivêreis (you had lived).  Romanian also has this tense, but uses the -s- form.
Vocabulary [ edit]
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia
The Central Post Office of Macau, Macau
Incidence of Germanic toponymy in Portugal-Galicia
Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin. Nevertheless, because of its original Lusitanian and Celtic Gallaecian heritage, and the later participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery, it has a relevant number of words from the ancient Hispano-Celtic group  and adopted loanwords from other languages around the world.
A number of Portuguese words can still be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal, which included the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes. Most of these words derived from the Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian language of northwestern Iberia, and are very often shared with Galician since both languages have the same origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese. A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other Celtic sources, often Gaulish. Altogether these are over 2, 000 words, some verbs and toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants.
In the 5th century, the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania) was conquered by the Germanic Suebi and Visigoths. As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some 500
Germanic words to the lexicon. Many of these words are related to warfare – such as espora 'spur', estaca 'stake', and guerra 'war', from Gothic *spaúra, *stakka, and *wirro respectively; the natural world i. suino 'swine' from *sweina, gavião 'hawk' from *gabilans, vaga 'wave' from *vigan' human emotions such as orgulho or orgulhoso ('pride', 'proud') from Old Germanic *urguol or verbs like gravar 'to craft, record, graft' from *graba or esmagar 'to squeeze, quash, grind' from Suebian *magōn or esfarrapar 'to shred' from *harpō. The Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such as Ermesinde, Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic sinths (military expedition) and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic reths 'council'. Other examples of Portuguese names, surnames and town names of Germanic toponymic origin include Henrique, Henriques, Vermoim, Mandim, Calquim, Baguim, Gemunde, Guetim, Sermonde and many more, are quite common mainly in the old Suebi and later Visigothic dominated regions, covering today's Northern half of Portugal and Galicia.
Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some 400 to 600 words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. They are often recognizable by the initial Arabic article a(l)-, and include common words such as aldeia 'village' from الضيعة alḍai`a (or from Edictum Rothari: aldii, aldias),  alface 'lettuce' from الخس alkhass, armazém 'warehouse' from المخزن almakhzan, and azeite 'olive oil' from الزيت azzait.
Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. For instance, catana 'cutlass' from Japanese katana, chá 'tea' from Chinese chá, and canja  'chicken-soup, piece of cake' from Malay.
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade, and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories. While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. From Kimbundu, for example, came kifumate > cafuné 'head caress' (Brazil), kusula > caçula 'youngest child' (Brazil), marimbondo 'tropical wasp' (Brazil), and kubungula > bungular 'to dance like a wizard' (Angola). From South America came batata ' potato ', from Taino; ananás and abacaxi, from Tupi–Guarani naná and Tupi ibá cati, respectively (two species of pineapple), and pipoca ' popcorn ' from Tupi and tucano ' toucan ' from Guarani tucan.
Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English. These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are many examples such as: colchete / crochê 'bracket'/'crochet', paletó 'jacket', batom 'lipstick', and filé / filete 'steak'/'slice', rua 'street' respectively, from French crochet, paletot, bâton, filet, rue; and bife 'steak', futebol, revólver, stock / estoque, folclore, from English "beef", "football", "revolver", "stock", "folklore".
Examples from other European languages: macarrão 'pasta', piloto 'pilot', carroça 'carriage', and barraca 'barrack', from Italian maccherone, pilota, carrozza, and baracca; melena 'hair lock', fiambre 'wet-cured ham' (in Portugal, in contrast with presunto 'dry-cured ham' from Latin prae-exsuctus 'dehydrated') or 'canned ham' (in Brazil, in contrast with non-canned, wet-cured presunto cozido and dry-cured presunto cru), or castelhano 'Castilian', from Spanish melena 'mane', fiambre and castellano.
Classification and related languages [ edit]
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese ( Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbours between the year 1000 and 2000. Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (take note that areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian, Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira– Canaries is not shown either).
Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages, and it has special ties with the following members of this group:
Galician, Fala and portunhol do pampa (the way riverense and its sibling dialects are referred to in Portuguese), its closest relatives.
Mirandese, Leonese, Asturian, Extremaduran and Cantabrian ( Astur-Leonese languages). Mirandese is the only recognised regional language spoken in Portugal (beside Portuguese, the only official language in Portugal).
Spanish and calão (the way caló, language of the Iberian Romani, is referred to in Portuguese).
Portuguese and other Romance languages (namely French and Italian) are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar. Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa. However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible, and Spanish is asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers. Given that Portuguese has a larger phonemic inventory than Spanish, Portuguese is still considerably intelligible (if spoken slowly and without jargon) to most Spanish speakers, owing to their genealogical proximity and shared genealogical history as West Iberian ( Ibero-Romance languages), historical contact between speakers and mutual influence, shared areal features as well as modern lexical, structural, and grammatical similarity (89%) between them.    
Portunhol, a form of code-switching, has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America. Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay ( dialeto do pampa) and Paraguay ( dialeto dos brasiguaios), and of Portugal with Spain ( barranquenho), that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish. 
Portuguese and Spanish are the only Ibero-Romance languages, and perhaps the only Romance languages with such thriving inter-language forms, in which visible and lively bilingual contact dialects and code-switching have formed, in which functional bilingual communication is achieved through attempting an approximation to the target foreign language (known as 'Portunhol') without a learned acquisition process, but nevertheless facilitates communication. There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena (including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage). 
Galician-Portuguese in Spain [ edit]
The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community (region) and historical nationality of Galicia (northwestern Spain). The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese, but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia. There is, however, still a linguistic continuity consisting of the variant of Galician referred to as galego-português baixo-limiao, which is spoken in several Galician villages between the municipalities of Entrimo and Lobios and the transborder region of the natural park of Peneda-Gerês/Xurês. It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [... ]". 
As reported by UNESCO, due to the pressure of the Spanish language on the standard official version of the Galician language, the Galician language was on the verge of disappearing.  According to the Unesco philologist Tapani Salminen, the proximity to Portuguese protects Galician. 
Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish. In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 90% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989)  is excellent between Galicians and northern Portuguese. Many linguists consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language.
Another member of the Galician-Portuguese group, most commonly thought of as a Galician dialect, is spoken in the Eonavian region in a western strip in Asturias and the westernmost parts of the provinces of León and Zamora, along the frontier with Galicia, between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Frexulfe rivers). It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers.
The Fala language, known by its speakers as xalimés, mañegu, a fala de Xálima and chapurráu and in Portuguese as a fala de Xálima, a fala da Estremadura, o galego da Estremadura, valego or galaico-estremenho, is another descendant of Galician-Portuguese, spoken by a small number of people in the Spanish towns of Valverde del Fresno ( Valverdi du Fresnu), Eljas ( As Ellas) and San Martín de Trevejo ( Sa Martín de Trevellu) in the autonomous community of Extremadura, near the border with Portugal.
There are a number of other places in Spain in which the native language of the common people is a descendant of the Galician-Portuguese group, such as La Alamedilla, Cedillo ( Cedilho), Herrera de Alcántara ( Ferreira d'Alcântara) and Olivenza ( Olivença), but in these municipalities, what is spoken is actually Portuguese, not disputed as such in the mainstream.
It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal. The dialectal diversity becomes more evident in the work of Fernão d'Oliveira, in the Grammatica da Lingoagem Portuguesa, (1536), where he remarks that the people of Portuguese regions of Beira, Alentejo, Estremadura, and Entre Douro e Minho, all speak differently from each other. Also Contador d'Argote (1725) distinguishes three main varieties of dialects: the local dialects, the dialects of time, and of profession (work jargon). Of local dialects he highlights five main dialects: the dialect of Estremadura, of Entre-Douro e Minho, of Beira, of Algarve and of Trás-os-Montes. He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose. 
In the kingdom of Portugal, Ladinho (or Lingoagem Ladinha) was the name given to the pure Portuguese language romance, without any mixture of Aravia or Gerigonça Judenga.  While the term língua vulgar was used to name the language before D. Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language",  the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese (the language of the Portuguese court) and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time. In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese (actually two) among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.
Influence on other languages [ edit]
See also: List of English words of Portuguese origin, Loan words in Malayalam § Portuguese, Loan words in Indonesian, Japanese words of Portuguese origin, List of Malay loanwords, Portuguese loanwords in Sinhala, Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil § Portuguese, Sri Lanka Indo-Portuguese language, Hindustani etymology § Loanwords from Portuguese, Gujarati language § Portuguese, Burmese language, Bengali vocabulary § Portuguese (পর্তুগিজ Pôrtugij), Thai language § Portuguese-origin, Chittagonian language, and Tok Pisin
Portuguese has provided loanwords to many languages, such as Indonesian, Manado Malay, Malayalam, Sri Lankan Tamil and Sinhala, Malay, Bengali, English, Hindi, Swahili, Afrikaans, Konkani, Marathi, Punjabi, Tetum, Xitsonga, Japanese, Lanc-Patuá, Esan, Bandari (spoken in Iran) and Sranan Tongo (spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica, a Tupi–Guarani language, which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka in Flores Island, Indonesia. In nearby Larantuka, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals.
The Japanese–Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho (1603) was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum (Annamite–Portuguese–Latin dictionary) of Alexandre de Rhodes (1651) introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese, which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language (among others), particularly regarding Chinese surnames; one example is Mei. During 1583–88 Italian Jesuits Michele Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci created a Portuguese–Chinese dictionary – the first ever European–Chinese dictionary.  
For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bosnian (archaic) portokal, prtokal, Bulgarian портокал ( portokal), Greek πορτοκάλι ( portokáli), Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال ( porteghal), and Romanian portocală.   Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال ( burtuqāl), Georgian ფორთოხალი ( p'ort'oxali), Turkish portakal and Amharic birtukan.  Also, in southern Italian dialects (e. g. Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian arancia.
Derived languages [ edit]
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century. Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.
Phonology [ edit]
Portuguese phonology is similar to those of languages such as French (especially that of Quebec), the Gallo-Italic languages, Occitan, Catalan and Franco-Provençal, unlike that of Spanish, which is similar to those of Sardinian and the Southern Italian dialects. Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish, Gallo-Romance (e. French) and the languages of northern Italy (especially Genoese), but with a deeper Celtic substratum.  
There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes. There are also five nasal vowels, which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels.
Vowels [ edit]
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its /ɐ, ɐ̃/ in central schwa position.
Like Catalan and German, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables. Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized.
Consonants [ edit]
Consonant phonemes of Portuguese    
Dental / Alveolar
trill / fricative
Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in (eu) rio /ˈʁi. u/ and (ele) riu /ˈʁiw/.  Phonologists discuss whether their nature is vowel or consonant. 
In most of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as /ɲ/ is realized as a nasal palatal approximant [ j̃], which nasalizes the vowel that precedes it: [ˈnĩj̃u].  
Bisol (2005:122) proposes that Portuguese possesses labio-velar stops /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ as additional phonemes rather than sequences of a velar stop and /w/. 
The consonant hereafter denoted as /ʁ/ has a variety of realizations depending on dialect. In Europe, it is typically a uvular trill [ʀ]; however, a pronunciation as a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] may be becoming dominant in urban areas. There is also a realization as a voiceless uvular fricative [χ], and the original pronunciation as an alveolar trill [r] also remains very common in various dialects.  A common realization of the word-initial /r/ in the Lisbon accent is a voiced uvular trill fricative [ ʀ̝].  In Brazil, /ʁ/ can be velar, uvular, or glottal and may be voiceless unless between voiced sounds.  It is usually pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative [x], a voiceless glottal fricative [h] or voiceless uvular fricative [χ]. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
/s/ and /z/ are normally lamino-alveolar, as in English. However, a number of dialects in northern Portugal pronounce /s/ and /z/ as apico-alveolar sibilants (sounding somewhat like a soft [ʃ] or [ʒ]), as in the Romance languages of northern Iberia. A very few northeastern Portugal dialects still maintain the medieval distinction between apical and laminal sibilants (written s/ss and c/ç/z, respectively).
As a phoneme, /tʃ/ occurs only in loanwords, with a tendency for speakers to substitute in /ʃ/. However, [tʃ] is an allophone of /t/ before /i/ in a number of Brazilian dialects. Similarly, [dʒ] is an allophone of /d/ in the same contexts.
In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops ( /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/) are usually lenited to fricatives [β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively, except at the beginning of words or after nasal vowels.  
Grammar [ edit]
A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language. Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages (except Galician and Fala):
The present perfect has an iterative sense unique to the Galician-Portuguese language group. It denotes an action or a series of actions that began in the past but expected to occur again in the future. For instance, the sentence Tenho tentado falar com ela would be translated to "I have been trying to talk to her", not "I have tried to talk to her. " On the other hand, the correct translation of "Have you heard the latest news? " is not *Tem ouvido a última notícia? but Ouviu a última notícia? since no repetition is implied. 
Vernacular Portuguese makes use of the future subjunctive mood, which developed from medieval West Iberian Romance. In modern Spanish and Galician, it has almost entirely fallen into disuse. The future subjunctive appears in dependent clauses that denote a condition that must be fulfilled in the future so that the independent clause will occur. English normally employs the present tense under the same circumstances:
Se eu for eleito presidente, mudarei a lei.
If I am elected president, I will change the law.
Quando fores mais velho, vais entender.
When you grow older, you will understand.
The personal infinitive can inflect according to its subject in person and number. It often shows who is expected to perform a certain action. É melhor voltares "It is better [for you] to go back, " É melhor voltarmos "It is better [for us] to go back. " Perhaps for that reason, infinitive clauses replace subjunctive clauses more often in Portuguese than in other Romance languages.
Writing system [ edit]
Portugal (formerly) and non-1990 Agreement countries
Portugal (currently), Brazil and 1990 Agreement countries
dire c ção
ó p timo
best, excellent, optimal
Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script, making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and etymological assibilation ( acute accent, circumflex, grave accent, tilde, and cedilla). The trema was also formerly used in Brazilian Portuguese, and can still be encountered in words derived from proper names in other languages, such as Anhangüera and mülleriano.  , though 'Anhangüera' and 'mülleriano' are a classical example of Estrangeirismo ( pt), a systematical usage of foreign Loanwords; in this case from Guarani and German origin, respectively. Accented characters and digraphs are not counted as separate letters for collation purposes.
Spelling reforms [ edit]
See also [ edit]
Anglophone pronunciation of foreign languages (Portuguese section)
International Portuguese Language Institute
List of countries where Portuguese is an official language
List of international organisations which have Portuguese as an official language
List of Portuguese-language poets
Portuguese language in Asia
References [ edit]
Citations [ edit]
^ a b Portuguese at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
^ Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. "Acts continue to mark Portuguese Language and Portuguese Culture Day".
^ Gutiérrez Bottaro, Silvia Etel. "El portugués uruguayo y las marcas de la oralidad en la poesía del escritor uruguayo Agustín R. Bisio" (PDF).
^ "Historia lingüística del Uruguay"..
^ Fernández Aguerre, Tabaré; González Bruzzese, Mahira; Rodriguez Ingold, Cecilia, Algunas notas teórico metodológicas sobre la relación entre regiones y aprendizajes en Uruguay, pp. 11–15, hdl: 20. 500. 12008/10776
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Portuguese". Glottolog 3. 0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ a b c "Estados-membros da CPLP". (in Portuguese). 7 February 2017.
^ Michael Swan; Bernard Smith (2001). "Portuguese Speakers". Learner English: a Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems. Cambridge University Press.
^ "The Origin and Formation of The Portuguese Language". Judeo-Lusitanica. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
^ Bittencourt de Oliveira, João. "Breves considerações sobre o legado das línguas célticas"..
^ "CIA World Factbook". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Top 11 Most Spoken Languages in Africa". 18 October 2017.
^ Benozzo, F. (2018): "Uma paisagem atlântica pré-histórica. Etnogénese e etno-filologia paleo-mesolítica das tradições galega e portuguesa", in proceedings of Jornadas das Letras Galego-Portugesas 2015–2017. Università de Bologna, DTS and Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa. pp. 159–170
^ a b Bagno, Marcos (2007), Gramática Histórica do latim ao português brasileiro, University of Brasília – via
^ a b "In the northwest of the Iberian Peninula, and more specifically between the west and north Atlantic coasts and an imaginary line running north-south and linking Oviedo and Merida, there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions with particular characteristics of its own. This corpus contains some linguistic features that are clearly Celtic and others that in our opinion are not Celtic. The former we shall group, for the moment, under the label northwestern Hispano-Celtic. The latter are the same features found in well-documented contemporary inscriptions in the region occupied by the Lusitanians, and therefore belonging to the variety known as LUSITANIAN, or more broadly as GALLO-LUSITANIAN. As we have already said, we do not consider this variety to belong to the Celtic language family. " Jordán Colera 2007: p. 750
^ Galicia and North Portugal are the origin of European celticity, interview with Prof. Francesco Benozzo, 13/03/2016
^ Comparative Grammar of Latin 34 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007
^ Ethnologic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (c. 200 BC). Retrieved on 14 November 2011.
^ Domingos Maria da Silva, Os Búrios, Terras de Bouro, Câmara Municipal de Terras de Bouro, 2006. (in Portuguese)
^ Koutantos, Dimitrios. "Palavras que cheiram mar 2: Etimologia de mais de 1000 Palavras Gregas Usadas em Português (Λέξεις που μυρίζουν θάλασσα)" (PDF).
^ Lay, Stephen (2015). "Sanctity and Social Alienation in Twelfth-Century Braga as Portrayed in the Vita Sancti Geraldi". Portuguese Studies. 31 (2): 153–168. doi: 10. 5699/portstudies. 31. 2. 0153.
^ Jean-Pierre Juge (2001) Petit précis – Chronologie occitane – Histoire & civilisation, p. 25
^ de Assis, Maria Cristina, História da língua portuguesa (PDF)
^ Henry Edward Watts. Miguel de Cervantes: His Life & Works.
^ Shipley, Joseph T. (1946). Encyclopedia of Literature. Philosophical Library. p. 1188.
^ Poddar, Prem; Patke, Rajeev S. ; Jensen, Lars (2008). "Introduction: The Myths and Realities of Portuguese (Post) Colonial Society". A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: continental Europe and its empires. Edinburgh University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-0-7486-2394-5.
^ a b / Portugal em Linha (8 March 2006). "Museu da Língua Portuguesa aberto ao público no dia 20".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Brazil: Fire engulfs Portuguese language museum in Sao Paulo, one killed". International Business Times. 22 December 2015.
^ Carvalho, Daniela de (1 February 2013). Migrants and Identity in Japan and Brazil: The Nikkeijin. ISBN 978-1-135-78765-3.
^ "Special Eurobarometer 243 "Europeans and their Languages " " (PDF). European Commission. 2006. p. 6. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
^ "Portuguese language in Brazil".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ Hagemeijer, Tjerk (2009), "As Línguas de S. Tomé e Príncipe" (PDF), Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola, 1 (1), pp. 1–27
^ Angola: Language Situation (2005). Keith Brown (ed. ). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed. Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
^ Medeiros, Adelardo. Portuguese in Africa – Angola
^ A. D. Medeiros, Adelardo. "Portuguese in Africa – Mozambique". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ A. "Portuguese in Africa – Guinea-Bissau". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions | South African Government".. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
^ 13, 100 Portuguese nationals in 2010 according to Population par nationalité on the site of the "Département des Statistiques d'Andorre" Archived 20 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
^ "Bermuda". World InfoZone. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012.
^ ~500, 000 use it as their mother tongue in the 2012 estimate, see Répartition des étrangers par nationalité
^ "Japão: imigrantes brasileiros popularizam língua portuguesa" (in Portuguese). 2008.
^ "4. 6% according to the 2001 census, see".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ a b Carin Pretorius – Developed CEIT Development CC. "The Namibian".
^ "Paraguay Ethnologue".
^ "Languages of Macau".
^ Fibbi, Rosita (2010). "Les Portugais en Suisse" (PDF). Office fédéral des migrations. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
^ See "Languages of Venezuela".
^ Carvalho, Ana Maria (2010). "Portuguese in the USA". In Potowski, Kim (ed. Language Diversity in the USA. Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-521-74533-8.
^ "Portuguese Language in Goa". Archived from the original on 29 May 2001. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "The Portuguese Experience: The Case of Goa, Daman and Diu". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "1. 500 pessoas estudam português em Goa". 2 June 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
^ Factoria Audiovisual S. R. L. (20 July 2010). "El portugués será el tercer idioma oficial de la República de Guinea Ecuatorial – Página Oficial del Gobierno de la República de Guinea Ecuatorial".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Equatorial Guinea Adds Portuguese as the Country's Third Official Language". PR Newswire. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
^ Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. "Equatorial Guinea, member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries".
^ "Official languages of Mercosul as agreed in the Protocol of Ouro Preto ".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ Statutes, Article 1 "Official statute of the organization".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations, Article 23 Tratado Constitutivo de la Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (PDF)
^ General Assembly of the OAS, Amendments to the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly, 5 June 2000
^ a b c Article 11, Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union "Protocol on the Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
^ "Languages in Europe – Official EU Languages". EUROPA web portal. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
^ "The World Factbook – Field Listing – Population – CIA". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
^ "Uruguayan government makes Portuguese mandatory" (in Portuguese). 5 November 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
^ "Portuguese language will be option in the official Venezuelan teachings" (in Portuguese). 24 May 2009. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
^ "Zambia will adopt the Portuguese language in their Basic school" (in Portuguese). 26 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
^ a b c d "Congo will start to teach Portuguese in schools" (in Portuguese). 4 June 2010. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
^ "Português entra no currículo escolar da Costa do Marfim no próximo ano letivo" [Portuguese enters the Ivory Coast school curriculum next school year]. 23 June 2016.
^ "República da Maurícia"..
^ "Português vai ser introduzido no ensino secundário no Zimbabué" [Portuguese to be introduced to secondary education in Zimbabwe]. SAPO 24 (in Portuguese). 18 January 2017.
^ "Zimbabwe: Português vai ser introduzido no ensino secundário do país" [Zimbabwe: Portuguese to be introduced into the country's secondary education] (in Portuguese). Angola Press - ANGOP. 19 January 2017.
^ "Português será língua curricular em 32 países no próximo ano letivo" [Portuguese will be curricular language in 32 countries next school year]. 22 July 2019.
^ "The World Factbook – Field Listing – Population – CIA". Retrieved 7 March 2015.
^ "Portuguese language gaining popularity". Anglopress Edicões e Publicidade Lda. 5 May 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
^ Leach, Michael (2007). "talking Portuguese; China and East Timor". Arena Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
^ Viviane Maia dos Santos. "A Constituição de Corpora Orais Para a Análise das Formas de Tratamento" (PDF). Anais do IX Encontro do CELSUL Palhoça, SC, out. 2010 Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Béliche Alves, Cibelle Corrêa (2012). " ' Por onde tá "o tu"? ' no português falado no Maranhão". Signum: Estudos da Linguagem. 15 (1): 13–31. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Loremi Loregian-Penkal (2005). "Alternância tu/você em Santa Catarina: uma abordagem variacionista" (PDF). Departamento de Letras – Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ "Audio samples of the dialects of Portuguese". Instituto Camões. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Nheengatu and caipira dialect".. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ Ferraz, Irineu da Silva (2005). Características fonético-acústicas do /r/ retroflexo do portugues brasileiro: dados de informantes de Pato Branco (PR) [ Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná] (PDF) (Master's thesis) (in Portuguese). Universidade Federal do Paraná. pp. 19–21. hdl: 1884/3955.
^ (in Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analysis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
^ (in Portuguese) Callou, Dinah. Leite, Yonne. Iniciação à Fonética e à Fonologia. Jorge Zahar Editora 2001, p. 24
^ (in Portuguese) To know a language is really about separating correct from awry? Language is a living organism that varies by context and goes far beyond a collection of rules and norms of how to speak and write Museu da Língua Portuguesa. Archived 22 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
^ "Linguistic prejudice and the surprising (academic and formal) unity of Brazilian Portuguese".
^ Monteiro, José Lemos (2000). "As descrições fonológicas do português do Ceará: de Aguiar a Macambira" (PDF). Revista do GELNE. 2 (1).
^ Viviane Maia dos Santos (2012). " ' Tu vai para onde?... Você vai para onde? ': manifestações da segunda pessoa na fala carioca" (PDF). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Maria do Socorro Silva de Aragão. "Aspectos Fonético-Fonológicos do Falar do Ceará: O Que Tem Surgido nos Inquéritos Experimentais do Atlas Lingüístico do Brasil – ALiB-Ce" (PDF). Universidade Federal do Ceará. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Seung Hwa Lee (2006). "Sobre as vogais pré-tônicas no Português Brasileiro" (PDF).. Faculdade de Letras – Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Aragão, Maria do Socorro Silva de (2009). "Os Estudos Fonético-Fonológicos Nos Estados da Paraíba e do Ceará" (PDF). Revista da ABRALIN. 8 (1): 163–184. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
^ Nascimento, Katiene; Guimarães, Daniela; Barboza, Clerton; Silva, Thaïs Cristófaro (2012). "Revisitando a palatalização no português brasileiro – Silva – Revista de Estudos da Linguagem". Revista de Estudos da Linguagem. 20 (2): 59–89.
^ "Learn about Portuguese language". Sibila. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
^ Note: the speaker of this sound file is from Rio de Janeiro, and he is talking about his experience with nordestino and nortista accents.
^ por Caipira Zé Do Mér dia 17 de maio de 2011, 6 Comentários (17 May 2011). "O MEC, o "português errado" e a linguistica... | ImprenÇa". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Cartilha Do Mec Ensina Erro De Português". Saindo da Matrix. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Livro do MEC ensina o português errado ou apenas valoriza as formas linguísticas? ". Jornal de Beltrão (in Portuguese). 26 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "Sotaque branco". Meia Maratona Internacional CAIXA de Brasília. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ "O Que É? Amazônia". Associação de Defesa do Meio Ambiente Araucária (AMAR). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ "Fala NORTE". Fala UNASP – Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ Giorgi, Alessandra; Pianesi, Fabio (1997). "On the Italian, Latin, and Portuguese Temporal Systems". Tense and Aspect: From Semantics to Morphosyntax. ISBN 978-0-19-509193-9.
^ "Rothari -Edictus" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ "Consulte o significado / definição de Canja no Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa, o dicionário online de português contemporâneo".
^ Jensen, John B. (1989). "On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese". Hispania. 72 (4): 848–852. 2307/343562. JSTOR 343562.
^ Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-521-78045-2.
^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 501. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1. how well do spanish speakers understand portuguese?.
^ Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo (2011). How Many Languages Do We Need? : The Economics of Linguistic Diversity. Princeton University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-691-13689-9.
^ a b Lipski, John M (2006). Face, Timothy L; Klee, Carol A (eds. "Too close for comfort? the genesis of 'portuñol/portunhol ' " (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium: 1–22. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
^ a b "A Fala Galego-Portuguesa da Baixa-Limia e Castro Laboreiro" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
^ Grupo El Correo Gallego. "O galego deixa de ser unha das linguas 'en perigo' para a Unesco". Galicia Hoxe – Noticias en galego a diario. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ "Galician". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "Jerónimo Cantador de Argote e a Dialectologia Portuguesa (continuação)". Lusografias. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
^ Silva, António de Morais (1823). Diccionario da lingua portugueza. Na typ. de M. P. de Lacerda. p. 140. Retrieved 30 May 2015. aravia.
^ " o Rei a Língua e o Reino" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ Camus, Yves. "Jesuits' Journeys in Chinese Studies" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
^ Dicionário Português–Chinês: Pu Han ci dian: Portuguese–Chinese dictionary, by Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci; edited by John W. Witek. Published 2001, Biblioteca Nacional. ISBN 972-565-298-3. Partial preview available on Google Books
^ a b "Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database: Sorting Citrus Names". University of Melbourne < >. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
^ Ostergren, Robert C. & Le Bosse, Mathias (2011). The Europeans, Second Edition: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment. Guilford Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-60918-140-6.
^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association pp. 126–130
^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228–229)
^ Sobre os Ditongos do Português Europeu Archived 29 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Carvalho, Joana. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto. Page 20 (page 10 of PDF file). Quotation: A conclusão será que nos encontramos em presença de dois segmentos fonológicos /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/, respetivamente, com uma articulação vocálica. Bisol (2005:122), tal como Freitas (1997), afirma que não estamos em presença de um ataque ramificado. Neste caso, a glide, juntamente com a vogal que a sucede, forma um ditongo no nível pós-lexical. Esta conclusão implica um aumento do número de segmentos no inventário segmental fonológico do português.
^ a b Bisol (2005:122). Quotation: A proposta é que a sequencia consoante velar + glide posterior seja indicada no léxico como uma unidade monofonemática /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/. O glide que, nete caso, situa-se no ataque não-ramificado, forma com a vogal seguinte um ditongo crescente em nível pós lexical. Ditongos crescentes somente se formam neste nível. Em resumo, a consoante velar e o glide posterior, quando seguidos de a/o, formam uma só unidade fonológica, ou seja, um segmento consonantal com articulação secundária vocálica, em outros termos, um segmento complexo.
^ Rodrigues (2012:39–40)
^ Bisol (2005:123)
^ Thomas (1974:8)
^ Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09155-7
^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:5–6, 11)
^ Grønnum (2005:157)
^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
^ Squartini, Mario (1998). Verbal Periphrases in Romance: Aspect, Actionality, and Grammaticalization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-016160-1. OCLC 39007172.
^ "Most Recent Changes to the Portuguese Language"..
^ "Guia do Acordo Ortográfico" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Moderna. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2010.
Sources [ edit]
Phonology, orthography and grammar
Barbosa, Plínio A. ; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004). "Brazilian Portuguese". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34 (2): 227–232. 1017/S0025100304001756.
Bergström, Magnus & Reis, Neves Prontuário Ortográfico Editorial Notícias, 2004.
Bisol, Leda (2005), Introdução a estudos de fonologia do português brasileiro (in Portuguese), Porto Alegre – Rio Grande do Sul: EDIPUCRS, ISBN 978-85-7430-529-5
Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995). "European Portuguese". 25 (2): 90–94. 1017/S0025100300005223.
Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed. ), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 978-87-500-3865-8
Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823581-1
Rodrigues, Marisandra Costa (2012), Encontros Vocálicos Finais em Português: Descrição e Análise Otimalista (PDF) (thesis), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2017, retrieved 25 December 2015
Thomas, Earl W. (1974), A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese, Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, ISBN 978-0-8265-1197-3
A pronúncia do português europeu – European Portuguese Pronunciation
Dialects of Portuguese at the Instituto Camões
Audio samples of the dialects of Portugal
Audio samples of the dialects from outside Europe
Cook, Manuela. Portuguese Pronouns and Other Forms of Address, from the Past into the Future – Structural, Semantic and Pragmatic Reflections, Ellipsis, vol. 11, APSA,, 2013
Cook, Manuela (1997). "Uma Teoria de Interpretação das Formas de Tratamento na Língua Portuguesa". 80 (3): 451–464. 2307/345821. JSTOR 345821.
Cook, Manuela. On the Portuguese Forms of Address: From Vossa Mercê to Você, Portuguese Studies Review 3. 2, Durham: University of New Hampshire, 1995
Lindley Cintra, Luís F. Nova Proposta de Classificação dos Dialectos Galego- Portugueses (PDF) Boletim de Filologia, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos, 1971.
External links [ edit]
Portuguese language at Curlie
Lupillo rivera esposa.
Lupillo rivera mix.
Lupillo rivera 2019.
Papia Kristang Malaccan Creole Portuguese Kristang Native to Malaysia Native speakers 2, 200 (2007)  Language family Portuguese Creole
Malayo-Portuguese Creole Papia Kristang Language codes ISO 639-3 mcm Glottolog None mala1533 Malacca–Batavia Creole  Linguasphere 51-AAC-aha This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Papia Kristang ("speak kristang"), or just Kristang, is a creole language. It is spoken by the Kristang, a community of people of mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry of the Malay race, chiefly in Malacca ( Malaysia).
The language is also called Cristão or Cristan ("Christian"), Portugues di Melaka ("Malacca Portuguese"), Linggu Mai ("Mother Tongue") or simply Papia. Papia means speak. However, locals and most of the Kristang community refer to the language as " Portugis ".
Distribution [ edit]
The language has about 750 speakers in Malacca  and another 100 in Singapore.  A small number of speakers also live in other Portuguese Eurasian communities in Kuala Lumpur and Penang in Malaysia, and in diaspora communities in Perth, Canada, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. 
The language is currently in steep decline, although efforts to revive it have begun in recent years in both Malacca, at the Portuguese Settlement, and Singapore, under the Kodrah Kristang initiative led by Kevin Martens Wong. 
History [ edit]
The Kristang language originated after the conquest of Malacca (Malaysia) in 1511 by the Portuguese Empire. The community of speakers descends mainly from interracial relationships between Portuguese men and local women, as well as a number of migrants from Portuguese India, themselves of mixed Indo-Portuguese ancestry.
Kristang had a substantial influence on Macanese, the creole language spoken in Macau, due to substantial migration from Malacca after its takeover by the Dutch.
Even after Portugal lost Malacca and almost all contact in 1641, the Kristang community largely preserved its language. The language is not taught at school, although there are still some Church services in Kristang.
Features [ edit]
Its grammatical structure is similar to that of the Malay language.
Because of its largely Portuguese vocabulary, and perhaps also as a result of migrations and cultural exchange along trade routes, Kristang has much in common with other Portuguese-based creoles, including the near-extinct creoles of Indonesia and East Timor.
Grammar [ edit]
To indicate verb tenses, the following appositions are used: jah (i. e. from the Portuguese já, meaning "already", or controversially a corruption of Malay dah, shortened version of sudah, also "already") for past tenses; ta (from está, which means "is") for present continuous tenses and logu or lo (from logo, which means "soon") for the future tense. These simplified forms correspond with their equivalents in Malay sudah, sedang, and akan, respectively.
Vocabulary [ edit]
A peculiarity of the language is the pronoun yo (meaning "I") which is used in Northern Portuguese (pronounced as yeu) as well as Spanish and Italian/Sicilian.
The Kristang lexicon borrowed heavily from Portuguese, but often with drastic truncation; for example, Portuguese padrinho and madrinha ("godfather" and "godmother") became inyu and inya in Kristang.
Metathesis was common: for example, Portuguese gordo "fat" gave Kristang godru. The Portuguese diphthong oi (or archaic ou) was reduced to o, e. g. dois / dous "two" → dos, à noite / à noute "tonight" → anoti / anuti.
Many Portuguese words that began with ch, pronounced [ʃ] ("sh") in modern Portuguese, have the pronunciation [tʃ] ("ch" as in "cheese") in Kristang. So, for example, Portuguese chegar "to arrive" and chuva "rain" produced Kristang chegak and chua (pronounced with [tʃ]). This could have been due to Malay influence, or it could be that Kristang preserved the original pronunciation [tʃ] of Old Portuguese. (Note that Portuguese "ch" pronounced [tʃ] occurs in Northern Portugal. )
Writing system [ edit]
Kristang was and is largely an oral language and has never been taught officially in schools. The first proposal for a standard orthography was made in the late 1980s, with the publication of a thesis, “A Grammar of Kristang”, by Alan N. Baxter, in which he emphasizes the use of the Malay orthography. 
As in most Portuguese dialects, the vowel e is usually pronounced [i] when followed by a syllable with /i/; so, for example, penitensia ("penitence") is pronounced [piniˈteɲsia].
In the 1990s, Joan Margaret Marbeck 's book Ungua Andanza was published, with the orthography written in a Luso-Malay context. 
Examples [ edit]
Common phrases [ edit]
Thank You: Mutu Merseh (Port. Muitas mercês, Malay: Terima Kasih)
How Are You?, Teng Bong? (Port. Estás bom?, lit. Têm bom?, Malay: Awak apa khabar? )
What's your name?, Ki bos sa numi? (Port. Qual é o seu nome?, lit. Quê vosso nome?, Malay: Siapa nama awak? )
Good Morning, Bong Pamiang (Port. Boa Manhã, Malay: Selamat Pagi)
Good Afternoon: Bong Midia (Port. Bom Meio-dia, Malay: Selamat Petang)
Good Evening: Bong Atadi (Port. Boa Tarde, Malay: Selamat Malam)
Good Night: Bong Anuti (Port. Boa Noite, Malay: Selamat Malam/Tidur)
Me: yo (Port. eu, Malay: Saya/Aku)
You (singular): bos (Port. vós, Malay: Awak/Kamu)
You (plural): bolotudu / bolotu (Port. vós todos', Malay: Awak semua/Kamu semua)
Mother: mai (Port. mãe, Malay: Emak/Ibu/Bonda/Ummi/Mama)
Father: pai (Port. pai, Malay: Bapa/Ayah/Abah/Abi)
Wife: muleh (Port. mulher, Malay: Isteri)
Husband: maridu (Port. marido, Malay: Suami)
Old Woman: bela (Port. velha, Malay: Wanita Tua)
Old Man: belu (Port. velho, Malay: Lelaki Tua)
Little one: Quenino or Keninu (Port. Pequenino, Malay: Si Kecil)
Mouth: boka (Port. boca, Malay: Mulut)
Fat: godru (Port. gordo, Malay: Gemuk)
Beautiful: bonitu (Port. bonito, Malay: Cantik)
Party: festa (Port. festa, Malay: Pesta)
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten: ungua/ngua, dos, tres, katru, singku, sez, seti, oitu, nubi, des (Port. um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, oito, nove, dez, Malay: satu, dua, tiga, empat, lima, enam, tujuh, lapan, sembilan, sepuluh)
Yes: seng (Port. sim, Malay: Ya)
No: ngka (Port. não, Malay: Tidak)
Who: keng (Port. quem, Malay: Siapa)
What: ki (Port. que, Malay: Apa)
When: kiora (Port. quando, Malay: Bila)
Where: ondi (Port. onde, Malay: Mana)
Why: kifoi (Port. porque, Malay: Mengapa)
How: klai (Port. como, Malay: Bagaimana)
We: nus (Port. nós, Malay: kami)
He/she/it: eli (Port. ele, ela, isto, Malay: dia)
They: olotu (Port. eles, Malay: Mereka)
Poem of Malacca [ edit]
Keng teng fortuna fikah na Malaka,
Nang kereh partih bai otru tera.
Pra ki tudu jenti teng amizadi,
Kontu partih logu fikah saudadi.
Oh Malaka, tera di San Francisku,
Nteh otru tera ki yo kereh.
Oh Malaka undi teng sempri fresku,
Yo kereh fikah ateh mureh.
Quem tem fortuna fica em Malaca,
Não quer partir para outra terra.
Por aqui toda a gente tem amizade,
Quando tu partes logo fica a saudade.
Ó Malaca, terra de São Francisco,
Não tem outra terra que eu queira.
Ó Malaca, onde tem sempre frescura,
Eu quero ficar até morrer.
Who is lucky stays in Malacca,
Doesn't want to go to another land.
In here everyone has friendship,
When one leaves soon has saudade.
Oh Malacca, land of Saint Francis,
There is no other land that I want.
Oh Malacca, where there's always freshness,
I want to stay here until I die.
Siapa beruntung tinggal di Melaka,
Tidak mahu ke tanah berbeza.
Di sini semua bersahabat,
Bila seorang pergi terasa rindu.
Oh Melaka, tanah Saint Francis,
Tiada tanah lain yang ku mahu.
Oh Melaka, dimana adanya kesegaran,
Aku mahu tinggal di sini hingga ke akhir nyawa.
See also [ edit]
Eurasians in Singapore
Chavacano language, a similar though Spanish -derived Malayo-Polynesian creole
Batavia, Dutch East Indies, as Kristang is also called Malacca–Batavia Creole
Notes [ edit]
^ Papia Kristang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malacca–Batavia Portuguese Creole". Glottolog 3. 0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ Baxter (2005), p. 16
^ a b Wong, Kevin Martens. "Kodrah Kristang Kaminyu di Kodramintu: Kinyang Ngua (The Kristang Language Revitalization Plan, Phase One)" (PDF). Kodrah Kristang. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ Baxter (1988), p. 17
^ Baxter (1988)
^ Joan Margaret Marbeck. Ungua Adanza (Heritage). Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1995
References [ edit]
External links [ edit]
Kodrah Kristang: Kristang in Singapore Revitalization Project and Classes
Papia, Relijang e Tradisang, The Portuguese Eurasians in Malaysia
Malacca Portuguese Eurasian Association
Malacca Portuguese Settlement
Singapore Eurasian Association Kristang Page
Joan Marbeck's homepage
Jingkli Nona - a Kristang viewpoint
The Theseira family
The Shepherdson family
The Peranakan Association Singapore
The Eurasian Company of the Singapore Volunteer Corps
Pasar Malam Besar festival in the Netherlands
Malaysian Eurasian food
All Portuguese Language Meetup Groups
Portuguese people speaking society
Lupeow crusaders quest.
International Portuguese Language Institute Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa Formation 1989 Headquarters Praia, Cabo Verde Official language Portuguese President Marisa Guião de Mendonça Website
The International Portuguese Language Institute ( Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa in Portuguese) or IILP is the Community of Portuguese Language Countries 's institute supporting the spread and popularity of the Portuguese language in the world. The Institute's headquarters is located in Praia, Cabo Verde.
History [ edit]
The institute is recent and its statutes are still not well regulated. However, its history starts in 1989 when the countries of Portuguese language gathered in São Luís do Maranhão in Brazil to create a base for a Portuguese language community. The Brazilian president, José Sarney proposed the idea of an international institute to promote the language. Only 10 years later in a meeting in São Tomé and Príncipe, a small island-nation in the Gulf of Guinea, the institute's objectives, implementation and location (Cape Verde) were set.
The IILP's fundamental objectives are "the promotion, the defence, the enrichment and the spread of the Portuguese language as a vehicle of culture, education, information and access to scientific and technologic knowledge and of official use in international forums".
The members of the IILP are the member states of the Lusophone Commonwealth - the CPLP: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, and São Tomé and Príncipe.
See also [ edit]
Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
External links [ edit]
Lupeol nmr. Lupeon seal lost ark. Lupillo rivera copa tras copas. Lupeol acetate. Lupillo rivera yo te extrañare. Culture Published on July 5, 2018 Before the Dutch, Indonesia was a melting pot of cultures. People from all walks of life anchored their boats around the archipelago to trade with this resource rich country. Travellers and traders from many countries could be found, including Arabs, Indians, Chinese. However one nationality seemed to dominate with their presence before the Dutch arrived: the Portuguese. That’s right, from the start of the 16th Century, the Portuguese with their advanced navigation and seafaring skills found their way to the East Indies and settled in the east of Indonesia, rich with the valuable spices! The Portuguese brought a number of things to the Indonesian isles, these include Christianity and, randomly, ‘ keroncong ’ – inspired by Portuguese sailors playing their small, braguinha, or small ukulele-like guitars. It could even be argued that it was the Portuguese that eventually brought the Dutch to Indonesia; Holland grew jealous of Portugal’s success in the spice trade and sought to take a piece of the pie, so to speak. Anyway, one of the lasting legacies of the Portuguese time in Indonesia was their words. Bahasa Indonesia was a language made, of course, of many langugages, the root language being Malay of course but it borrows words from Hokkien, it has Arab words and of course many Dutch words. But, because Portuguese was the lingua franca (common or bridge language) for traders in Indonesia back in the 16th century, many words became part of Bahasa Indonesia as a result. Here we present 20 Indonesian words that came from Portguese words: 1. Mentega Comes from the Portuguese word ‘manteiga’, or butter in English. source: 2. Keju Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ queijo’, or cheese in English. source: 3. Bendera Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ bandeira ‘, or flag in English. source: 4. Meja Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ mesa ‘, or table in English. source: 5. Jendela Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ janela ‘, or window in English. source: 6. Gereja Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ igreja’, or church in English. source: 7. Sepatu Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ sapato’, or shoe in English. source: 8. Kemeja Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ camisa’, a looser translation. Meaning shirt in English. source: 9. Minggu Comes from the word ‘ domingo’, the root taken from the second part of the word. Meaning Sunday in English. source: 10. Flores This is a Portuguese word meaning ‘flowers’; whilst it doesn’t translate to ‘flowers’ in Indonesian, it was in fact the Portuguese that named is Flores Islands in East Nusa Tenggara, the Flower of Indonesia! source: 11. Belanda This word comes a string of different words the Portuguese used for the Dutch, which included Holanda, Olanda, Wolanda and also Bolanda, which eventually became Belanda, meaning Dutch or Holland in English. source: 12. Gudang Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ gudão’, meaning storage. This was actually the same word that became the root for English’s ‘godown’, meaning warehouse. source: 13. Inggris Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ Ingles’, meaning England in English. Source: 14. Kampung Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ campo’, which has several meanings which could have influenced the use of the word kampung today. Whilst originally meaning ‘field’ in English, more likely the definitions of ‘countryside’ or ‘camp’ were the reasons it became the word it is today. source: 15. Kereta Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ carreta’, or train (literally chariot) in English. source: 16. Natal Coming from the same word ‘ natal’ in Portuguese, this is the word for Christmas. Bahasa Indonesia also took on the Portuguese word for Easter, Paskah or Páscoa in Portuguese. This makes sense considering the Portuguese were one of the first to introduce Christianity to the region, so Christian-related words would naturally make its way into the language. Others include: Paderi ( padre, Father or Priest), Santo or Santa (same in Portuguese, words for saint), previously mentioned Gereja ( igreja, church) and Misa ( missa, or Catholic Mass). source: 17. Palsu Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ falso’, meaning false / fake in English. source: 18. Pesta Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ fiesta’, similar to Spanish. Means party in English. 19. Sabtu Comes from the Portuguese word ‘ Sabado’, meaning Saturday in English. source: 20. Tolol Comes from the Portuguese word ‘tolo’, meaning fool in English. source: There are in fact many more words that we use on a daily basis in Indonesia that stem from the Portuguese language. Seeing them is just a great reminder on how much our history has influenced the culture identity of Indonesia today. The archipelago was once a melting pot of many foreign cultures; today, those cultures have imbedded themselves deep into the people, creating the many interesting cultures we can see around the country today. The evolution of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika through the ages! Why not read about 12 Important Indonesian Words That Originate from Hokkien.
Lupillo rivera que me entierren cantando. Lupeolo lyrics. Campa ceballos che la barba cresce. Maestro Catto che ne pensa di questo Pepè. Lupeol sigma. Lupillo rivera temecula home. Lupillo rivera corridos. Lupillo rivera belinda. Lupeol solubility. Lupillo rivera yo te extranare. Lupillo rivera sufriendo a solas. Lupeone. Lupeol pdf. Portuguese language, Portuguese Português, Romance language that is spoken in Portugal, Brazil, and other Portuguese colonial and formerly colonial territories. Galician, spoken in northwestern Spain, is closely related to Portuguese. Portuguese language A student writing on a blackboard in a Portuguese language class. Alan Gignoux/Alamy Read More on This Topic Romance languages Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian, all national languages. Catalan also has taken on a political and cultural significance; among the Romance… Portuguese owes its importance—as the second Romance language (after Spanish) in terms of numbers of speakers—largely to its position as the language of Brazil, where in the early 21st century some 187 million people spoke it. In Portugal, the language’s country of origin, there are more than 10 million speakers. It is estimated that there are also some 8 million Portuguese speakers in Africa ( Angola, Cabo Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe). Portuguese is also spoken by about 678, 000 people in the United States, with large communities of speakers in the states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Brazilian Portuguese varies from European Portuguese in several respects, including several sound changes and some differences in verb conjugation and syntax; for example, object pronouns occur before the verb in Brazilian Portuguese, as in Spanish, but after the verb in standard Portuguese. Despite differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, Portuguese is often mutually intelligible with Spanish are four main Portuguese dialect groups, all mutually intelligible: (1) Central, or Beira, (2) Southern ( Estremenho), including Lisbon, Alentejo, and Algarve, (3) Insular, including the dialects of Madeira and the Azores, and (4) Brazilian. Standard Portuguese was developed in the 16th century, basically from the dialects spoken from Lisbon to Coimbra. Brazilian (Brasileiro) differs from the Portuguese spoken in Portugal in several respects, in syntax as well as phonology and vocabulary, but many writers still use an academic metropolitan standard. A Judeo-Portuguese is attested in 18th-century Amsterdam and Livorno (Leghorn, Italy), but virtually no trace of that dialect remains today. Typical of the Portuguese sound system is the use of nasal vowels, indicated in the orthography by m or n following the vowel (e. g., sim ‘yes, ’ bem ‘well’) or by the use of a tilde (∼) over the vowel ( mão ‘hand, ’ nação ‘nation’). In grammar its verb system is quite different from that of Spanish. Portuguese has a conjugated or personal infinitive and a future subjunctive and uses the verb ter (Latin tenere, Spanish tener ‘to have, ’ ‘to hold’) as an auxiliary verb instead of haver (Latin habere, Spanish haber ‘to have’; in Spanish used only as an auxiliary verb). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Until the 15th century, Portuguese and Galician formed one single linguistic unit, Gallego-Portuguese. The first evidence for the language consists of scattered words in 9th–12th-century Latin texts; continuous documents date from approximately 1192, the date assigned to an extant property agreement between the children of a well-to-do family from the Minho River valley. Literature began to flourish especially during the 13th and 14th centuries, when the soft Gallego-Portuguese tongue was preferred by courtly lyric poets throughout the Iberian Peninsula except in the Catalan area. In the 16th century, Portugal’s golden age, Galician and Portuguese grew farther apart, with the consolidation of the standard Portuguese language. From the 16th to the 18th century, Galician was used only as a home language (i. e., as a means of communication within the family). Toward the end of the 18th century, it was revived as a language of culture. In the 21st century, with Spanish, it is an official language of the comunidad autónoma (“autonomous community”) of Galicia. In 2008 the Portuguese parliament passed an act mandating the use of a standardized orthography based on Brazilian forms. Rebecca Posner Marius Sala The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.
W il popolo e la media borghesia. Lupillo rivera instagram. Lupillo rivera mas cabron que bonito. Ale fai un fioretto se dovesse andare in B l'Atalanta. Lupe fiasco. Lupercales. Lupron injections. Lupeol pills. Lupeol abhd2 patent. Lupersat. Lupron depot. Lupillo rivera jenni rivera. Lupeolo kiwini lyrics. Lupron injection side effects. I need level 142. Incredibile accordo tra il barbiere del doge e Rocco Commisso... la formula recita: Acquisti fiorentina non prima di agosto 2020 accordo per il barbiere sulla base di tre milioni di euro più bonus pulci e forfore varie. iostoconildoge #vivailnostrismo.
Lupillo rivera height. Quindi mio doge lei non può che amare un pochino anche il mio Toro. Il problema è che il Real te lo dava solo in prestito o con la recompera. Un Po come ha fatto con la Juve per Morata. Ieri cmq ho visto la viola ale. Una fiorentina tosta che ha tenuto testa ad un benfica qualitativamente molto superiore. Una resistenza eroica fino alla beffa finale. Il benfica con quasi il doppio dei tiri della viola ovviamente ha meritato ma i ragazzi di montella sono stati sul pezzo tutta la partita con garra. Da chiesa invece ho visto impegno ma mi aspettavo di più e francamente fossi la juve ci penserei bene a comprarlo eventualmente.
Lupeolo. Concordo Ale Ceballos poteva venir bene per la mia Inter. Che dire. Buon per l'Arsenal. Lupillo rivera wife. Lupillo santiago. Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa Formation 1 December 2008 Headquarters Santiago de Compostela, Galicia Official language Portuguese President Rudesindo Soutelo Website www. academiagalega The Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language ( Portuguese: Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa) is a learned institution dedicated to the advancement, study, and normalization of Galicia 's language. The academy promotes Reintegrationism, the concept that the language spoken in Galicia (dubbed the Galician language by some) is in fact merely a dialect of the Portuguese language and should be standardized to the international Portuguese norms of language. Contents 1 Goals 2 Structure 3 References 4 External links Goals [ edit] The Academy’s goal is to promote the study of the country’s language and its integration into the Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990. The Academy includes among its promoters some of the Galician delegates that attended the Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon meetings that led to the international treaty. Structure [ edit] The Academy is self-governing and independent, and maintains close ties with the Brazilian Academy of Letters and the Sciences Academy of Lisbon. In 2009 the Galician Academy produced a list of over one thousand words commonly used in Galicia’s Portuguese language, for introduction into various Portuguese and Brazilian dictionaries and vocabularies.  References [ edit] ^ ":: Pró Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa::.. - AGLP participa em cerimónia interacadémica na ACL".. Retrieved 12 May 2010. External links [ edit] Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa Lexicon of Galiza This Spanish school-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
DOGE PUR CAPENDO IL SUO FETICISMO PER TALE CEBALLOS C'E' DA DIRE CHE NON SAREBBE STATO UN GRANDE AFFARE PRENDERLO IN PRESTITO SECCO. SAREBBE UN CONTROSENSO CRITICARE L'AFFARE GERSON (LUNGI DA ME PARAGONARE I DUE CALCIANTI SOTTO IL PROFILO QUALITATIVO) PER POI APPROVARE QUELLO CEBALLOS. CHE E' SI UN GRANDISSIMO TALENTO MA SE DEVO VALORIZZARLO PER ALTRI ANCHE NO. MI SCUSO PER LA CRITICA E MI COSPARGO IL FECI DI CAPO ONOREVOLE DOGE. Portuguese is one of the major languages of the world (the sixth most spoken language worldwide), spoken by about 200 million people on four continents. It belongs to a group of languages called "Romance" or "Neo-Latin" that evolved from Latin, the language of Latium in Ancient Italy, or more specifically, the city of Rome. After the Roman invasion, Latin gradually became established in the Iberian peninsula and finally replaced the native languages. When the country of Portugal was founded, it adopted its own particular Romance, which was essentially Portuguese, as the national language. Further to the north, the region of Galicia (Spain) where the same Romance was spoken, remained politically subjugated to the kingdom of Leon and Castile, and even today Galician remains a regional dialect, under the official hegemony of Spanish. There was always great regional variation in Latin vocabulary, depending on each region's position with respect to Rome. The Iberian provinces were somewhat on the sidelines, and did not receive many of the lexical changes that were constantly created in Rome by the urban masses' need for expression. Portuguese and Spanish maintain, for example, the traditional Latin verb comedere ( comer in both Portuguese and Spanish), meaning "to eat", while Italy and France adopted the new term manducare, which became mangiare and manger. Another example is the Latin word for "cheese" ( caseus), from which developed the Portuguese queijo and Spanish queso. In France and Italy however, caseus was replaced by formaticus, derived from forma, which was connected with a new process of making cheese. From this term evolved the French fromage, and Italian fromaggio. Factors like these explain why Portuguese and Castilian (Spanish) are the most similar of all the Romance languages. The other groups that settled in what is now Portugal over the centuries had little effect on the language, although there is still a small number of words that go back to Celtic times (such as ontem, meaning "yesterday" which has the same origin as the Scottish Gaelic an d, and esquecer, meaning "to forget"), a few words of Germanic origin (such as roubar, meaning "to steal, " and guerrear, meaning "to wage war"), and about five hundred words introduced in Moorish times, especially those starting with the "al" prefix, such as almofada ("pillow"). During the Age of Discovery, when Portugal established an overseas empire, the Portuguese language was heard in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Under regional influences, it absorbed a small number of words like jangada ("raft") of Malay origin, and chá ("tea"), of Chinese origin. The Portuguese discoveries also had the opposite effect, and there are numerous Portuguese words in other languages, especially in Japanese. Other languages that have influenced Portuguese include French, due to the infiltration of French manners and customs in Portugal during the tenth and eleventh centuries, when Frenchmen went to Portugal as pilgrims, courtiers, statesmen, scholars, and soldiers of fortune to help fight the Moors. There were also influences of Provençal, a language from the south of France, with words such as rua ("street"), similar to the French rue. In Lisbon, Porto, most of Algarve, and other main tourist destinations, English is spoken fairly widely. Still, learning just a few simple Portuguese words certainly enhances a visit to Portugal. The Portuguese are proud of their language and do not take kindly to being addressed in Spanish by foreigners, so visitors should take a little time to become familiar with some basic Portuguese vocabulary. NOTE: The rules given below refer to European Portuguese. Some of them don't apply to Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation. At first, the Portuguese language can seem difficult to understand, since as one of the Romance languages derived from Latin, one expects it to be close to the resonant rattle of Spanish or the Romantic cadences of Italian. Instead, its closed vowels and shushing consonants sound closer to an Eastern European language. But knowledge of Spanish, Italian, or French does help to decipher the written word. Having an idea of French pronunciation helps to pronounce nasalized vowels, which are indicated by a tilde (~) over them or are followed by "m" or "n. " The Portuguese word for wool, lã, therefore sounds roughly like the French word lin. Also helpful is knowing that the suffix "-ção" is the equivalent of the English "-tion, " so informação is "information, " and nação is "nation, " for example. These words form their plural by changing the suffix to "-ções" (so nação becomes nações). The cedilla under the "c" serves exactly the same purpose as in French -- to transform the "c" into a "ss" sound in front of the vowels "a, " "o, " and "u" ( Açores, Graça, etc. ). The accent usually falls on the next-to-last syllable ( Fado, azulejos, etc. ), except when there's an acute accent to indicate the proper pronunciation ( sábado, república, está, etc. ). As in other Romance languages, things are either masculine or feminine, with most masculine nouns ending in "o" and most feminine ones ending in "a. " English - Portuguese Yes - sim No - não Thank You - obrigado Good Bye - adeus or chao Good Morning - bom dia Good Afternoon - boa tarde Good Night - boa noite Welcome - bem-vindo Excuse Me - com licença I'm Sorry - desculpe See You Later - até logo Can I? - posso? How much? - quanto? Here - aqui There - ali Near - perto Far - longe Hot - quente Cold - frio New - novo Old - velho Yesterday - ontem Today - hoje Tomorrow - amanhã I need help. - Preciso de ajuda Where's __ Street? - Onde é a rua __ Do you know...? - Você sabe...? Good - bom Bad - mau Open - aberto Closed - fechado Mother - mãe Father - pai Son - filho Daughter - filha Breakfast - pequeno-almoço Lunch - almoço Snack - lanche Dinner - jantar Sandwish - sandes Ice Cream - gelado Dessert - sobremesa Coffee - café Tea - chá Juice - sumo Olives - azeitonas French Fries - batatas fritas Vegetables - legumes Butter - manteiga Eggs - ovos Bread - pão Salad - salada Cheese - queijo Spoon - colher Fork - garfo Knife - faca Glass/Cup - copo Bottle - garrafa Wine - vinho Beer - cerveja Sunday - domingo Monday - segunda-feira Tuesday - terça-feira Wednesday - quarta-feira Thursday - quinta-feira Friday - sexta-feira Saturday - sábado January - janeiro February - fevereiro March - março April - abril May - maio June - junho July - julho August - agosto September - setembro October - outubro November - novembro December - dezembro Vacation - férias Money - dinheiro Bus - autocarro Train - comboio Airplane - avião Taxi - taxi Keys - chaves Soap - sabão or sabonete Bathroom - quarto de banho Newspaper - jornal Magazine - revista Letter - carta Postcard - postal Envelope - envelope Stamp - selo Post Office - correios Sick - doente Pain - dor Hospital - hospital Doctor - doutor Prescription - receita 1. Mandarin (China) 2. Spanish (Spain) 3. English (United Kingdom) 4. Bengali (Bangladesh) 5. Hindi (India) 6. PORTUGUESE (Portugal) 7. Russian (Russia) 8. Japanese (Japan) 9. German (Germany) 10. Chinese (China).
Lupeol birth control. Io in premier simpatizzo gli hammers 💪🏻💪🏻💪🏻. I also want level 142. Lupron shot. Original Article Translation of the Parental Inventory “Language Use Inventory” into Brazilian Portuguese Tradução do Inventário Parental “Language Use Inventory” para o Português Brasileiro 1 Faculdade de Fonoaudiologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas – PUC Campinas - Campinas (SP), Brasil. 2 Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP - São Paulo (SP), Brasil. ABSTRACT Purpose To translate and adapt the assessment tool Language Use Inventory from English to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The study was carried out in two stages. Once the publisher’s authorization was given, the process of translation and back-translation of the protocol was initiated, adapting it to sociocultural aspects, such as expressions, names, and adequate examples in Brazilian Portuguese. In order to investigate the internal reliability of the translation process, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used. The second stage was a pilot study, in which the questionnaire was applied to 43 parents of children from 24 to 47 months old from a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results were analyzed according to the total score and to the subscales of the questionnaire. The variables age range and parental level of education were also analyzed. Results The analysis using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed high internal consistency (α>0, 98) in almost all the subscales which means that the instrument adapted to Brazilian Portuguese can be used. In the pilot study, an age effect was found in the total score and in the LUI subscale scores, i. e., the older the children, the fewer gestures they used, with more words and syntactic constructions. Conclusion The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LUI questionnaire seems to be a reliable translation of the original and a reliable instrument to evaluate preschoolers’ language pragmatics. After future detailed analyses, it will allow early diagnosis and intervention in children with language disorders. Keywords Child Language; Translating; Protocols; Interview; Communication RESUMO Objetivo Traduzir e adaptar a ferramenta de avaliação “Language Use Inventory” do inglês para o português brasileiro. Método O estudo foi realizado em duas etapas. Após a autorização da editora, foi iniciado o processo de tradução e retrotradução do protocolo, adaptando-o aos aspectos socioculturais, como expressões, nomes e exemplos adequados em português brasileiro. Para investigar a confiabilidade interna do processo de tradução, foi utilizado o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. A segunda etapa foi um estudo piloto, no qual o questionário foi aplicado a 43 pais de crianças de 24 a 47 meses de uma cidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados foram analisados segundo o escore total e as subescalas do questionário. As variáveis faixa etária e nível de escolaridade dos pais também foram analisadas. Resultados A análise pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach mostrou alta consistência interna (α> 0, 98) em quase todas as subescalas, o que significa que o instrumento adaptado para o português brasileiro pode ser utilizado de forma confiável. No estudo piloto, um efeito de idade foi encontrado no escore total e nos escores da subescala LUI, ou seja, quanto mais velhas as crianças, menos gestos foram utilizados e mais palavras, construções sintáticas foram produzidas. Conclusão A versão brasileira do questionário LUI pareceu ser uma tradução fiel do instrumento original e confiável para avaliar a pragmática da linguagem de pré-escolares. Após futuras análises pormenorizadas, permitirá o diagnóstico precoce e a intervenção em crianças com distúrbios de linguagem. Descritores Linguagem Infantil; Tradução; Protocolo; Entrevista; Comunicação INTRODUCTION Human communication as well as mental development are directly influenced by interaction and language, with direct implications on sociability, cognitive ability to objectify, understand, interpret, represent and construct reality in a socially organized world ( 1). From birth, babies have all sensory and perceiving equipment to interact with the outside world, provoking, through the eyes, gestures, attitudes and behaviors that enable their needs to be satisfied. Cooing and babbling come up, as well as smiles and eye contact, requesting social games with adults. Babies follow faces with their eyes, select images from their field of vision, turn their heads to noises or voices, imitate facial expressions, accompany with movements the adult's speech. Around twelve months, first words occur as well as the understanding of songs, words, small instructions or prohibitions ( 2). The comprehension of the adult’s intentional action results from a gradual process of organizing the infants’ sensory motor actions (by imitating adults’ behavior) ( 3). With the increase of lexical repertoire and syntactic complexity, around two years of age, there is the development of pragmatic competence, using linguistic and extralinguistic communication within the context. From this age, the individual masters turn-taking and learns to initiate conversation topics, to adapt its utterances according to the participants of the conversation, to produce longer utterances and to develop narrative skills ( 4). They use language to request, inform, ask and interact; start and sustain dialogues for a few turns, and talks to people in concrete and familiar contexts ( 5). In the literature, there is reference to several types of instruments, such as tests, scales and inventories, that have been used in applied and clinical research for follow-up programs of child development, early stimulation programs, and to plan the actions taken with children and caregivers. The interest of researchers and clinicians regarding the pragmatics of language has grown in the recent years. However, there are few standardized and validated instruments to verify its development in children under the age of four ( 4). Besides, there is no standardized protocol in Brazilian literature designed to evaluate the development of pragmatics in preschoolers from the parents’ perspective. According to different authors ( 6), there is scarcity of commercially available formal instruments in Brazil. Evaluation and diagnosis in the area of Speech-Language Pathology are very important and can only be achieved when appropriate tools and procedures are used. The lack of formal and objective instruments reflects in diagnosis, in the definition of therapeutic conducts and in the design of intervention plans. Thus, it jeopardizes the effectiveness and efficiency of the offered treatments ( 7, 8). One way that some researchers have found to solve this problem is to translate instruments available in other languages rather than to create new instruments ( 7, 8). The procedures adopted in this process should be judicious and careful, since translation and adaptation are as important as the construction of a new instrument. The steps must be rigorously followed including the application and interpretation of the criterion test, so that a given instrument can be used in a new cultural context. In addition to the impact that these instruments will have on clinical practice and research, they will constitute a fundamental step to identify the most frequent problems in our environment and its risk factors, allowing better planning of childhood health practices and evaluation of intervention and treatments offered ( 6). Given this methodological approach to translation and back-translation, it is necessary to identify discrepancies between the language of the original and the language of interest to the translation, seeking a more reliable version as well as making it possible to verify whether the original language instrument really measures what it is proposed to measure in the language of interest ( 9) Thus, the translation seeks the various types of equivalence in relation to the original preferably with a bilingual translator, with experience in both cultures ( 6). There are several methodologies for transcultural adaptation of measurement and evaluation instruments applicable in any field and two studies are highlighted ( 9, 10). One argues that the process of cross-cultural adaptation is interactive and encompasses types of equivalence: conceptual equivalence; equivalence of items; semantic equivalence; measurement equivalence; functional equivalence ( 9). Another proposal followed stages in cross-cultural adaptation processes: translation; synthesis of translations; retranslation; expert Committee; pre-test; sending the material produced to the developers of the original instrument; evaluation of the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument ( 10). A series of steps must be rigorously followed so that a certain instrument can be used in a new cultural context, citing the translation as a first step, so it must seek different types of equivalence in relation to original, such as cultural, semantic, technical, content related, criterion based and conceptual ( 6). It also recommends back-translation, which consists on translating the instrument back into the original language, preferably by a bilingual with experience in both cultures, comparing the two versions and maintaining equivalence at the different levels previously referred to. It is also important that the examiners be trained, before using the test. If these conditions are met, it is assumed that the adapted instrument is likely to properly measure the concept in both cultures, to the same extent as the original instrument, guaranteeing the comparability of the results ( 6). There are examples of studies in the scientific literature using these and other research methodologies, such as the translation and cultural adaptation of the Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH) for the Brazilian Population ( 11). The authors performed an evaluation of the concepts, equivalence, semantics and items; translation, back-translation, review by a committee of judges and pre-test. The study proved that the instrument can be applied in the Brazilian population, due to the validity of the translation process and high reliability, observed through the Cronbach’s test. Another example was the translation of the McGill Illness Narrative Interview ( 12). It presents an interview research model to obtain narratives of experiences with illness and symptoms, tested in the Brazilian context for psychiatric and cancer related problems. It also presented two translations and their respective back-translations, semantic equivalence, elaborated synthesis and final versions, and two pre-tests in the target populations (people with auditory hallucinations or breast cancer), in which a high degree of semantic equivalence between the original instrument and the translated-retranslated pairs, and in the perspective of the referential and general meanings. The semantic and operational equivalence of the proposed modifications were confirmed in the pre-tests. The equivalent process used in the translation and back-translation was the Semantic Equivalence of the Brazilian version of Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) ( 13). In this process, two translations and feedbacks were carried out by independent evaluators, evaluation of the versions with elaboration of a synthesis version and pre-test commented. For each item of the instrument, the results of the four steps are presented. For the authors, the use of two versions of translation and back-translation provided greater security to the process of semantic equivalence. Descriptors such as cross-cultural adaptation, social anxiety scales, semantic equivalence and social phobia were used. Within this scope, the authors of the present study searched for a questionnaire with this purpose, and were interested on the Language Use Inventory (LUI), a Canadian instrument developed by O’Neill ( 4). LANGUAGE USE INVENTORY The Language Use Inventory (LUI) is a standardized and validated parent-report questionnaire for assessing pragmatic development of children from 18 to 47 months of age. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher Daniela O’Neill, from the University of Waterloo (Canada), and published in 2009. It has been formulated from the understanding that language is inherent to social life and related to social cognition ( 4). This evaluation observes the child’s language use in daily life situations, with several interlocutors and propositions: to achieve certain objectives, to interact socially with others, to comment on the immediate environment, to communicate about people and absent events, and to express emotions, thoughts and beliefs about themselves or others. It observes the development of the comprehension of mind; the understanding of the very subject and other people regarding behavior, mental states and different perspectives ( 4). LUI focuses on the child’s use of language in daily life and the parents’ reports of child's use of language. This evaluation process identifies the “natural” participation of the subject in the environment. This close look of the LUI questionnaire into pragmatics has appealed to the authors of this study, since there is no parental questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese that assesses pragmatic aspects. Thus, the translation and adaptation of the LUI would contribute to the follow-up of children’s development and the detection of possible delay or disorders in pragmatic or spoken language in children between 18 and 47 months of age. A study of the LUI’s predictive validity was published in 2012. Participants were 348 parents who had filled in the questionnaire when their children were 18 to 47 months old. The children were re-assessed at the age of 5 to 6 years with several measures of language development ( 13). The authors of the study reported that the questionnaire showed high sensitivity and specificity for the age group from 24 to 47 months. For children between 18 and 23 months of age, the questionnaire was sensitive but showed positive predictive values below the expected. One of the authors’ hypotheses was that children were still in a stage of acquisition and development. They also added that, based on its validation and correlation with other language measures, the LUI may be used as an indicator of language delays. The assessment comprises 180 items divided into 14 subscales. The items from Ten of these subscales comprise the 161 items that make up the LUI Total Score and evaluate the development of the child’s communication through a variety of functions, including: help request, shared attention, questions and comments about objects and people, interaction with other people, sharing humorous situations, talking about language and words, adaptation of communication under the perspective of other people, and building long sentences and stories. The instrument allows the identification of children with delays or disorders in the development of language pragmatics in several contexts and social interactions ( 14). There are both YES/NO questions and items that use a Likert scale (never, rarely, sometimes, always and not anymore). One point is attributed when parents answer yes, sometimes or always. The other options (no, never, rarely or not anymore) are scored zero. The questionnaire also has 2 subscales with open questions and 2 subscales with questions about gestural communication, but these are excluded from the LUI total score. There is a version of the LUI translated and validated for European Portuguese, the LUI-Portuguese (Portugal) ( 15). The authors translated, adapted and validated the questionnaire through a pilot study with a sample of 120 questionnaires answered by parents or caregivers of Portuguese children with ages between 18 and 47 months. They observed high internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha), which suggested internal validity of the scale for the studied population. A version of the LUI for French-Canadian children has also recently been developed (the LUI-French - Canada) ( 16). For this study, 242 questionnaires were applied regarding individuals between 18 and 47 months of age. As in the Portuguese study, the authors found high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, indicating good reliability of the translated version. There is also a version adapted to Italian ( 17). In this LUI-Italian (Italy) adaptation, 190 questionnaires were applied. As in the other adaptations, there was no differences between gender and age groups. Given the importance of child language follow-up and the lack of Brazilian protocols that evaluate the pragmatic aspects of language from the perspective of parents, the aim of the present study was to translate and adapt the Language Use Inventory to Brazilian Portuguese, since the questionnaire has previously shown high reliability and broad application. METHODS This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the São Paulo Federal University, under protocol number 0917/2016. It had two stages: translation/adaptation and pre-test. Translation/adaptation Material The LUI (Language Use Inventory) questionnaire is a validated parent-report protocol devised to evaluate the development of pragmatics in children from 18 to 47 months of age ( 4). It has a front page with the child’s identification (name, date of birth), name of the person who answered the questions (name and degree of kinship with the child), and date when the test was taken. There is also detailed instruction on how to answer the questionnaire. The inventory comprises 14 subscales organized into three parts. The first part, entitled “How your child communicates through gestures”, has two subscales: A – “How your child uses gestures to ask for something” (with 11 items) and B – “How your child uses gestures so you notice something” (with 2 items). These items are closed and dichotomous questions (yes or no), and the parents or the interviewer should mark with an X the items corresponding to the correct answer. The second part is entitled “Your child’s communication with words” and has three subscales: C – “Type of words your child uses”, with 21 items; D – “Your child’s requests for help” and E – “Your child’s interests”. In this part, there are three types of questions and answers: open and closed out of two types – dichotomous and Likert scale (never, rarely, sometimes, always and not anymore). The closed questions are regarding the child’s communicative aspects (e. g. Does he/she point to what he/she thinks is interesting? ) and the parents are asked to mark an X on the corresponding answer: yes, no, or one among five alternatives (never, rarely, sometimes, always and not anymore). Part 2 can only be answered if the child uses at least one word regularly. Part 3, “Your child’s longer sentences”, has the following subscales: F – “How your child uses the words to get you to notice something” (6 items); G – “Your child’s questions and comments about things” (9 items); H – “Your child’s questions and comments about self/other” (36 items); I – “Your child’s use of words in activities with others” (14 items); J – “Teasing and your child’s sense of humor” (5 closed items and 1 open); K – “Your child’s interests in words and language” (12 items); L – “Your child’s interests when he/she speaks (5 open and closed items); M – “How your child adapts conversation to other people (15 items); N – “How your child is building longer sentences and stories” (36 items). This part uses only dichotomous and open questions. The last part is a child’s identification page with data regarding birth conditions, overall health, and exposure to other languages. The scores for the analysis of the child’s performance can be entered the LUI Score Sheet. The LUI total score is obtained by the sum of the subscale scores corresponding to parts 2 and 3 (except the subscales E and L, which are not scored). Part 1 assessing gesture use is also not included in the LUI Total Score. Procedure After obtaining the publisher’s formal license, the process of translation and back-translation of the protocol was initiated, according to the requirement of standardization of the test and to international standards ( 6, 9, 10). The translation and back-translation were carried out by a Brazilian with fluency in English and reviewed by two other native Brazilians fluent in English, both speech-language pathologists and Public University teachers. These professionals carried out not only the translation, but also sociocultural adaptations such as expressions, names, and adequate examples in Brazilian Portuguese. To check the reliability of the translated questions and their format, a bilingual speech-language pathologist (fluent both in Portuguese and English) performed the back-translation of the questionnaire (English to Portuguese). Both versions were compared to ensure their equivalence. In the back-translated version, the translator carried out further adaptations regarding vocabulary, syntactic issues, and expressions. The back-translation was sent to the author of the original questionnaire in order to verify the similarity of language and context with the original and to confirm the possibility of using it. After this stage, three mothers answered the questionnaire and provided feedback on the clarity and ease to answer the questions. All mothers had completed higher education and reported that the questionnaire was easy to fulfill, clear and detailed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to verify the internal reliability of the questions (items) of the subscales. Values close to 1 indicate a good internal consistency. For an exploratory research, values above 0. 6 were accepted. The corrected item-total coefficients (CITC) examined the items within a subscale and how the alpha value of the subscale would change if an item was excluded. Pilot study The next stage was a pilot study, conducted with 42 parents of 24 to 47-month-old children. More than half of the children were female (64. 3%) and 35. 7% male. Regarding the age group, 33. 3% (14 participants) had ages between 30 and 35 months, 28. 5% between 24 and 29, and between 36 and 41 months (12 children for each age group) and 4 (9. 5%) between 42 and 47 months. Girls were the majority of 30-35 month-old (78. 6%), of 36-41 month-olds (66. 7%) and of 42-47 month-olds (75%), while boys were slightly more than half (58. 3%) of the 24-29 month old group. After the school agreed to participate in the research (signed the Institutional Consent Form), the Free and Informed Consent form (approved by the Research Ethics Committee) was sent to the parents. The parents who agreed to participate in the research received an envelope with the protocol to be fulfilled. The mean maternal age was 35. 0 (SD = 4. 1) and paternal 37 (SD = 5. 4). Most parents (87. 8% of fathers and 85. 7% of mothers) had been to High School and the family income was approximately R$ 12. 224. 24 per month. Although the protocol is designed for children older than 18 months, this study selected 24 to 47-month-old children. At this age there is significant growth of the vocabulary and other aspects of language, including developing narrative skills ( 2, 4, 18, 19). Besides, it is also possible to fill almost the entire questionnaire and identify risks, and possible language delays ( 13). Data analysis To obtain the total score of the test, each subscale must be scored. For the dichotomous questions, only the YES answers are accounted for (1 point each). For the questions with five possible answers, the rule was: YES, SOMETIMES and ALWAYS scored 1 point and the others (NO, NEVER, RARELY and NOT ANYMORE) scored zero. The subscale scores from parts 2 and 3 are then summed up to obtain a total raw score. They will show if the child is above or below the average for its age group, according to the manual of the test (which provides standard scores by age group and gender). The results were also analyzed regarding age group and parental level of education variables. Descriptive percentages and statistical tests, such as Pearson’s and Spearman’s Correlation were used (for continuous variables) or Chi-squared tests of contingency (for two categorical variables). A 0. 05% significance level was adopted. RESULTS Translation and adaptation of the Language Use Inventory The tables below show linguistic and idiomatic modifications made in the translation and back-translation of the LUI ( 16). The protocol suiting was adapted from the original in English ( 4) directly to Brazilian Portuguese. Two questions were added to the original version: level of education and address of mother and father. No items of the Parts 1 to 3 were excluded or added, only modified according to the Brazilian Portuguese language. That is, adaptations were made regarding vocabulary, morphosyntactic structures (verb tenses, pronouns), idiomatic expressions, and examples used in Portuguese. All the modifications are described in detail in Box 1. The total items are still 180 and 161 are used to the Total Score, identical to the original LUI. Box 1 Translation from English to Brazilian Portuguese SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS MODIFICATIONS IN EACH PART Adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese Instructions 4. Altering the last sentence to “ seu filho faz isso apenas em outra língua ” (“your child only does this in another language”) and changing the term “non-English” to “non-Portuguese language”. Final questionnaire (Exposure to other languages) Substitution of the word “English” for “Portuguese” in the questions (e. Was your child exposed to Portuguese since birth? ) Adaptation of the vocabulary for Brazilian Portuguese Part 1: A3: Substitution of “ pedir para ser carregado ” for “ pedir seu colo ” B1: Use of the verb without complement (points/handles, shows, gives) Part 2: C3. Using the examples in diminutive form and animal sounds (as used with young children). E. : “miau” instead of “ gato ” (cat); “au-au” instead of “ cachorro ” (dog); “ peixinho ” (fishy – diminutive for fish) D3. Substitution of “ pedir que você repita o que você fez ” (“asking you to repeat what you did”) to “ fazer novamente ” (“do it again”) D4. “Play a game” translated as “brincar” (“play”) (this verb can be used for both toys and games) Adaptations of idiomatic expressions and syntactic propositions Part 1: Instruction for the first part: “ a sentença ” (the sentence) Part 2: C13 and C16: Altered the verb tense (past to past participle) D1 to D6: Use the initial verb in the infinitive form (e. “ usar ” – to use instead of “ usando ” – using) D6: Substituted the noun “” (toy) for the pronoun “ o ” (it) Part 3: F4. A verb was added to the expression that you know what happened “ Sabe o que aconteceu? ” G7 and G8: Substituted “ gosto ”, “ sensação ”, “ cheiros ” and “ aparência ” for “ sabor ”, “ cheiro ”, “ tato ”. H36: “ idioma do meu filho ” (my child’s language) instead of “ meu filho usa o idioma ” (my child uses the language) J1 and J3: Substitute “ de forma provocadora ” (in a provocative way) for “ apenas provocar você ” (to tease you) M15 and N27: Substitute the verb “ pensar ” (to think) for “ achar ” (to find) N7, N8, N9, N11 and N12: The auxiliary verb was altered to a verb in Portuguese and the morphemes “-ei” (1 st person singular), (3 rd person singular “-ou”), “-emos” (1 st person plural), “-ão” (3 rd person plural) were added to the infinitive to indicate a mode of future in Portuguese ( futuro do presente) that is the equivalent to the use of the auxiliary before the infinitive verb in English (conditional tense). Similarly, the morphemes “-ia” (1st and 3rd person singular), “-íamos” (1 st person plural), “-iam” (3 rd person plural) were added to form the equivalent to the auxiliary “would” bedore the infinitive verb (conditional tense) N32: Substitute the word “pessoas” (persons) for “personagem/personagens” (character/characters) Adaptation of examples for Brazilian Portuguese Part 1: A8: Added an example: “ olhe para a televisão para que você ligue ”. Part 2: C6: Altered the example “ bloco ” to “ carro pequeno ” C16: Altered the example “au-au” (dogs barking) E4 and E5: Adding of one or more examples Part 3: G9: “ parece um cachorro ” (instead of “ parece um cão ”) H8, H16: Adaptation of Brazilian names João and Daniel Part 2: Explanation of Part 2: removed the example I9: Altered the exemplo to a question (“ é a minha vez agora? ” – is it my turn now? ) J1 and J3: The expression “teasing way” was translated as “just to tease you” (“ só para te provocar ”) K10: Added examples (store signs, car symbols) L4: Altered the example “paku” to “avó” (grandma) End of the questionnaire: Added: level of education, mother’s and father’s address Variation in the LUI total – items in Portuguese = 2 (183 Vs 180 original LUI); Items altered in the BPt-LUI Total score = 0 (161 original LUI) The back-translation was as reliable as possible to the original version ( Box 2), adapting morphosyntactic and semantic aspects of English. Box 2 Back-translation from Brazilian Portuguese into English MODIFICATIONS Adaptation to English Instructions: 4. Altered “non-English language” to “non-Portuguese language” Final questionnaire: (Exposure to other languages) Substituted the word “English” in the questions for “Portuguese” (e. Was your child exposed to Portuguese since birth? ) Vocabulary adaptation to English Part 1: B1 and B2: Substituted the complement for the verb (indicate what he/she considers interesting instead of point) Adaptation of syntactic aspects to English rules Part 1: A1 and A9: Added “s” to verbs to mark the third person of singular Part 2: C13, C16 C17 and C19: Altered the verb tense (past participle to infinitive) D1 to D6: Substituted the preposition “by” before the verb Adaptation of examples to English Part 2: C1. Kitty instead of cat C6: Substituted the example “little car” for “blocks” C16: Substituted the example “au-au” (sound made by dogs) for “doggie” D2: “Wafer” instead of “cookies” I9: Changed the example for a question (is it my turn now? ) Part 3: G9: Added “looks like a dog” H8 and H16. Names altered: John and Daniel K10: Added examples (store and car symbols) L4: Substituted the example “paku” for grandmother End of the questionnaire: Added: level of education and mother’s and father’s address Total variation of BPt-LUI items = 2 (183 Vs 180 original LUI); Items changed in BPt-LUI Total Score = 0 (161 original LUI) The translation and back-translation were observed by the author of the protocol, who made suggestions and comments about the progress of the process. Adaptation The internal reliability was assessed for all the subscales and the three parts that composed the protocol ( Table 1). Table 1 Results for scales and subscales using the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient Subscale Number of questions Cronbach’s Alpha Part 1 Your child´s gestures A How your child uses gestures to ask for something 11 0. 807 B How your child uses gestures to get you to notice something 2 0. 549 Total 13 0. 823 Part 2 Your child´s communication with words C Types of words your child uses 21 0. 790 D Your child´s requests for help 7 0. 559 E Your child´s interests -- -------- 28 Part 3 Your child´s longer sentences F How your child uses words to get you to notice something 6 0. 794 G Your child´s questions and comments about things 9 0. 893 H Your child´s questions and comments about themselves/other people 36 0. 961 I Your child´s use of words in activities with others 14 0. 932 J Teasing and your child´s sense of humor 5 0. 605 K Your child´s interest in words and language 12 0. 752 L Your child´s interests when talking __ _____ M How your child adapts conversation to other people 15 0. 868 N How your child is building longer sentences and stories 0. 918 133 0. 978 Part 2 + 3 161 Subscales E and L are descriptive and were not analysed with Crombach´s but ithey are counted in the total number of items The Cronbach’s alpha analysis indicated values appropriate to an excellent reliability of all three parts of the LUI which each presented high internal consistency (α>0. 98). Analyzing each subscale separately, it was noticed that subscales A, C, F, G, H, I, K, M, and N presented high internal consistency (α between 0. 75 and 0. 96), and subscale J presented appropriate internal consistency (α=0. 605). Two constructs from Part 1 were below the expected: Subscale B (α=0. 549) and Subscale D (α=0. 559). These 2 subscales were analyzed with parsimony to figure out the low consistency. The subscale B has only 2 items, which justified the low consistency. CITC was used to examine the Subscale D. Analyzing all seven items, it was observed that questions 1, 2 and 4 should be considered with caution because Cronbach's alpha increases relative to the domain index when they are retracted. It showed that those questions may not be understood by parents and should be modified or deleted. The mean age of the children participating in the study was 33. 3 months (SD=6. 0) ( Figure 1). Figure 1 Age range of participants The mean score in Part 1 was 9. 3 (SD=3. 4P), part 2 was 25. 2 (SD=5. 1), with 73. 6% (SD=30. 8), and part 3 presented a mean score of 81. 7 (SD=36. 3) The mean total score was 106. 9 (SD=40. 9), and mean total percentage was 44. 8% (SD=28. 5). Observing the scores by age group, it was verified that younger children (24 to 29 months) performed more gestures (mean of 10. 3, SD = 3. 5). The words were slightly more used by children aged 30 to 35 months (27. 6; SD = 0. 5) and over 42 months (27. 5; SD = 1. 0) and sentences were most frequently used by participants over 30 months (30-35 months: 100. 1 (SD = 18. 3), 36-41 months: 106. 8 (SD = 12. 4), 42-47 months: 112. 8 SD = 8. Specific statistical tests could not be applied due to low incidence ( Table 2). Table 2 LUI score per age range Age range (months) 24-29 30-35 36-41 42-47 Parte1_score Medium 10. 3 7. 8 8. 1 8. 3 Standard Deviation 3. 5 3. 1 3. 7 2. 8 N 4 Parte2_score 25. 2 27. 6 25. 6 27. 5 0. 5 7. 5 1. 0 Parte3_score 64. 5 100. 1 106. 8 112. 8 32. 9 18. 3 12. 4 8. 5 89. 7 130. 2 132. 3 140. 3 35. 2 20. 9 13. 7 9. 0 N: number of participants per age range Weak negative correlation was found between children’s age and Part 1 of the questionnaire (regarding children’s gestural communication), that is, the older the children, the lower the scores and percentages of children assessed (c=-0. 312; p=0. 045). The score of part 2 had a weak correlation with this variable (c=0. 372; p=0. 015). Part 3 (communication through sentences) and total score had moderate positive correlation with age (c=0. 512; p=0. 001; c=0. 477; p=0. 001, respectively). These data show that the older the child, the greater the use of words and sentences and the less the use of gestures during communication. There was weak correlation between maternal age (C=0. 316; p=0. 042) and moderate with paternal one (c=406; p=0. 008) and part 2: the older the parents, the better the child’s communication with words. There is no correlation between LUI scores and gender ( Table 3). Table 3 Sex and age range of participants N% gender female 41. 7 78. 6 8 66. 7 3 75. 0 27 64. 3 male 58. 3 21. 4 33. 3 1 25. 0 35. 7 100. 0 42 With the results described above, it was noticed that the translated questionnaire proved to be as reliable as the original. The Cronbach’s alpha showed that the protocol presents high reliability to be reproduced. Children were above the average in parts 1 and 2 of the LUI (regarding gestures and words), and below the expected for sentences (Part 3) and total score. The parts of the LUI could be correlated to the children’s age, that is, the older the children, the less they used gestures and the more they used words and sentences. No correlation was found with the variables of the study (parental age and level of education), except regarding Part 2 and the parent’s age. DISCUSSION The Language Use Inventory questionnaire allows one to understand the child’s use of language in a reasonable amount of time and with effective cost-benefit ( 20). The protocol has been used internationally, translated and adapted to several languages, therefore the authors are interested in translating and adapting it to Brazilian Portuguese. An application of an instrument, developed in different cultural contexts, needs an adaptation, emphasizing the semantic equivalence of the terms. The steps of translation require linguistic care, because many terms have different meanings and specificities ( 6, 11). The translation into Portuguese involved the adaptation of idiomatic expressions, substitution of names and expressions, adjustments of syntactic and semantic aspects, although the reliability of the original version, in English, was kept. The changes were minimal and aimed to ease the application of the questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese speakers (e. providing examples of what the children might say, using Brazilian expressions, such as “au-au” for dogs and “brincar” for playing a game). The back-translation was developed in consultation with the author of the English LUI, who advised the authors of this study providing suggestions that would sustain the objective of the protocol. No item was excluded, only two additional questions regarding the level of education and address of the parents were added to the final demographic information. According to several authors ( 21 - 23), parental level of education interferes directly in the child’s language development. In a study that observed the dyadic interaction of 2-year-old children, parents with higher income and more years of education provide better stimulation to the children within different contexts, from the verbal repertoire of parents to vocabulary development ( 22, 23). A pre-test with participants is of extreme importance because it verifies the comprehension of the items and allows the discussion of the feasibility of the application of the instrument in the Brazilian population ( 11). For the present study, 24 to 47-month-old children were recruited. Although it does not contemplate the entire age range of the protocol, as of 2 years there is speedy acquisition and development of the language aspects (phonology, syntax, semantics), which structure functional use in different communicative contexts ( 5, 18, 19). From the age of two, the individuals learn to shift change, start conversational topics, adapt the utterance to conversation participants, produce longer utterances, and develop narrative ( 24). They use language to request, inform, ask, and interact. They initiate and maintain dialogues, but not for many turns and they talk to people in concrete and well known contexts ( 5). At 26 months, children can understand communicative intentions and, based on this recognition, they infer the social intention of the interlocutor. Between 3 and 4 years, communicative functions are perfected and intensified, there being questions about absent facts ( 24). Shifts are intelligible and coherent ( 5, 24). The questionnaire, especially in children aged 24 to 47 months, may be an indicator of delays in the language development of the study population ( 13). From the structure of linguistic components, it is possible to observe changes in the development that can be diagnosed and accompanied at an early stage ( 25). Thus, the researchers aim at collecting data from 18 to 24-month-old children as well as detailed analysis, such as differences between age groups (which are included in the questionnaire) and gender. The reliability of all parts of the questionnaire was evaluated for all the parts that compose the protocol. The Cronbach’s alpha analysis showed an excellent reliability, except for subscales B and D. Regarding subscale B, this study corroborates the translations of the LUI into French (LUI-French (Canada) ( 16); and European Portuguese (LUI-Portuguese (Portugal) ( 15), since this subscale is part of the shortest subscale about gestures (only 2 items), which are not accounted for in the total LUI score ( 16). However, there was a difference between this study and the other mentioned studies regarding the subscale D. According to CITC, three items in this subscale influenced the low result of Cronbach's alpha. Some hypotheses were raised as lack of understanding of the parents about the question, which may have occurred due to cultural differences or the formulation of the question in Portuguese was not enlightening. These items will be reviewed for the next stage of the work. This subscale presented low reliability with Brazilian children, contrasting with the internal reliability found for the LUI-French (Canada), that showed adequate reliability. Hence, there seems to be a small difference between Brazilian, French-Canadian and European populations, however, even with the low reliability of these two subscales, the protocol adapted to Brazilian Portuguese was found reliable and reproducible. The subscales of the original LUI were developed based on the literature and statistical analysis to emphasize important developmental tasks for several ages between 18 and 47 months, integrating many pragmatic elements ( 16). The parallelism of the original LUI and its Brazilian Portuguese version of the LUI suggests that the pragmatic development of English- and Portuguese-speaking populations follow a similar pattern. In the pilot study, children’s age on the scores may influence LUI subscales, as well as on the total score, that is, the older the children, the fewer gestures they used and more words and syntactic constructions they used. This result warrants a more detailed analysis but, at this stage, it agrees with the results for the French-Canadian translation ( 16) and indicates that, like the French-LUI, the BPt-LUI may be also suitable for 24-47 months of age. This research had a sample of 42 individuals. The results reported in this study establish directions for further research which will aim at investigating the reliability of all the subscales, standardizing and validating the questionnaire with a greater number of families and describing language pragmatics in different populations of children. CONCLUSION The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LUI questionnaire can be seen as a faithful translation of the original and a reliable instrument to evaluate preschoolers’ language pragmatics. After future detailed analysis, it will allow early diagnosis and intervention in children with language disorders. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank all the colleagues and friends at NIFLING Premature and the Outpatient Care of Premature Infants. We also thank Daniela O´Neill for her kindness and attention. REFERENCES 1 Morato EM. Das relações entre linguagem, cognição e interação-algumas implicações para o campo da saúde. Ling (Dis)Curso. 2016;16(3):575-90.. [ Links] 2 Dias IS. De bebé a criança: caraterísticas e interações. Rev Eletrônica Pesquiseduca. 2014;6(11):158-72. 3 Tomasello M. Construing a language: a usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2003 4 O’Neill D. The language use inventory for young children: a parent-report measure of pragmatic language development for 18 to 47-months-old children. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007;50(1):214-28. (2007/017). PMid:17344560. 5 Zorzi JL, Hage PROC Sr. Protocolo de observação comportamental: avaliação de linguagem e aspectos cognitivos infantis. São José dos Campos: Pulso; 2004. 6 Giusti E, Befi-Lopes DM. Tradução e adaptação transcultural de Instrumentos estrangeiros para o Português Brasileiro (PB). Pró-Fono Revista de Atualização Científica. 2008;20(3):207-10.. PMid:18852970. 7 Andrade CRF. A fonoaudiologia baseada em evidências. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2004;2:59-60. 8 Andrade CRF, Juste F. Proposta de análise de performance e de evolução em criança com gagueira desenvolvimental. Rev CEFAC. 2005;7(2):158-70. 9 Herdman M, Fox-Rushby J, Badia XA. Model of equivalence in the cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments: the universalist approach. Quality of Life Research. 1998;7(4):323-35. 10 Beaton D, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25(24):3186-91. PMID: 11124735. 11 Cardoso M, Henderson S, Capellini SA. Translation and cultural adaptation of Brazilian Detailed Assessment of Speed of hadwriting: conceptual and semantic equivamlence. Audiol Commun Res. 2018;19(4):321-6.. 12 Leal EM, Souza NA, Serpa OD Jr, Oliveira IC, Dahl CM, Figueiredo AC, et al. McGill Entrevista Narrativa de Adoecimento – MINI: tradução e adaptação transcultural para o português. Rev Cien Saude Colet. 2016;21(8):2393-402.. PMid:27557013. 13 Pesco D, O’Neill DK. Predicting later language outcomes from the language use inventory. 2012;55(2):421-34. (2011/10-0273). PMid:22223891. 14 O’Neill DK. Language use inventory: an assessment of young children’s pragmatic language development for 18-to 47-month-old children. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Knowledge in Development; 2009. Measurement instrument. 15 Guimarães, C CS, Cruz-Santos, A., & Almeida, L. Adaptation of the parent report language use inventory for 18- to 47-months-old children to european Portuguese: a pilot study. Aud Com Research. 2013;18(4):332-38.. 16 Pesco D, O’Neill D. Assessing early language use by french-speaking canadian children: introducing the LUI-French. Can J Speech-Lang Pathol Audiol. 2016;40(3):180-217. 17 Longobardi E, Lonigro A, Laghi F, O’Neill DK. Pragmatic language development in 18- to 47-month-old Italian children: a study with the Language use inventory. First Lang. 2017;37(3):252-66.. 18 Barrett M. Early lexical development. In: Fletcher P, MacWhinney B, editors. The handbook of child language. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ; 2017. p. 361-92.. 19 Saxton M. Child language: acquisition and development. 2nd ed. USA: Sage; 2017. 7-9. 20 Foster-Cohen S, van Bysterveldt AK. Assessing the communication development of children with language delay through parent multi-questionnaire reporting. Speech Lang & Hear. 2016;19(2):79-86.. 21 Taylor N, Donovan W, Miles S, Leavitt L. Maternal control strategies, maternal language usage and children’s language usage at two years. J Child Lang. 2009;36(2):381-404. PMid:18925991. 22 Hoff E. The specificity of environmental influence: socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Dev. 2003;74(5):1368-78.. PMid:14552403. 23 Abbot-Smith K, Nurmsoo E, Croll R, Ferguson H, Forrester M. How children aged 2/6 tailor verbal expressions to interlocutor informational needs. 2015;43(6):1277-91.. PMid:26585856. 24 Schutz TM. Down syndrome: an investigation into effective assessment and intervention to increase overall communicative abilities. Southern Illinois: University Carbondale Open SIUC; 2014. Research Papers. Paper 470. 25 Fernandes FDM, Molini-Avejonas DR. Processos de intervenção nos distúrbios de linguagem infantil. In: Lamônica DAC, Oliveira e Brito DB. Tratado de linguagem: perspectivas contemporâneas. Ribeirão Preto: Book Toy; 2016. 215-23. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cosa pretendi da Marotta. una cosa comunque devi spiegarmela! Come fai a far Live con quel gasato cazzaro di Bergomi? Il bianco e il nero, il giorno e la notte. tutto lopposto. Mah.
Lupron therapy. Lupeolo tau'olunga.
Ceballos diventerà fortissimo ma quando vedo Joao Felix mi impressiona. Lupillo rivera y belinda. Thank you for putting time into this video.
- Published by: Roxy Benavides
- Resume: Nurse, sweet tooth, craft beer lover, enjoying life :)